Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies Named after G.F. Morozov

Periodical printed edition (journal)

 

ISSN 2308-8877

Registration certificate PI No. FS 77-79357 dated 16.10.2020 (previously PI No. FS 77 - 66379 dated 14.07.2016 and PI No. FS 77-54416 dated 10.06.2013)

№3 (46) 2019

Artyomov A.V. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING STEERING DESIGNS USED ON SELF-PROPELLED MACHINES FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES

Abstract: On the basis of the analysis of modern trends in the development of technical support of agricultural production, the directions of development of specialized self-propelled machines for agricultural purposes are determined. It is determined that when creating high-tech self-propelled machines, a special requirement is placed on steering systems. This is due not only to the possibility of adapting these machines to the possibility of automatic control, but also to the safety of their operation. This article reviews and analyzes the existing steering systems used on self-propelled machines for agricultural purposes. The regularities of the application of various schemes and designs on machines of different classes and purposes. It is determined that the majority of self-propelled machines have hydro-volume steering with a drive on the front and rear axles. The design features of hydraulic volume drives of steering are considered and their analysis is carried out. Based on the information received, a schematic diagram of the hydro-volume steering of the self-propelled chassis on ultra-low pressure tires with the possibility of electronic control is developed. The proposed scheme can be implemented on machines of different classes and layouts, while allowing to realize the possibility of controlling the trajectory of the machine in manual, semi-automatic and automatic modes.

Keywords: self-propelled machine, steering, ultra-low pressure tire, hydro-volume drive, electronic control, robotic platform.

 

Avdeeva И.A., Markov A.I. METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

Abstract: The object in relation to which the concept of “development” is used is most often the activity of the enterprise. The quantitative approaches used in practice to assess the development of an enterprise are mainly based on the use of consolidated estimates of growth in values with a limited set of indicators or criteria. Such indicators, as a rule, do not cover all aspects of the enterprise and do not fully take into account the specific features of their functioning. It is proposed to use a system of relative indicators characterizing the activities of a sectoral enterprise, which potentially makes it possible to conduct a comparative analysis in which the industry average and standard indicators can be taken as a comparison base. The purpose of the study is to test the generated system of relative indicators characterizing its activities on the data of a specific industrial enterprise. Analysis of the activities of a particular enterprise revealed the obvious problems in the activities of this enterprise. Thus, to study the activities of any enterprise, it is possible to use the indicated groups of indicators in order to assess its condition and development prospects.

Keywords: development management, industry enterprises, a system of relative indicators.

 

Avdeeva I.A., Yudin G.G. IMPROVING THE METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES OF EXECUTIVE AUTHORITIES OF CONSTITUENT ENTITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE SPHERE OF FOREST RELATIONS

Abstract: The effectiveness of the executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, which are subordinate to the Federal Forestry Agency, is evaluated taking into account indicators characterizing the state of forest resources. The scorecard is a key element of performance monitoring incorporated into the forestry development program of each constituent entity of the Russian Federation. Under these conditions, the question of the correctness of the existing methodology for assessing the managerial activity of executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in the field of forest relations becomes relevant. With an inadequate assessment of the results of managerial activity at the level of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, which is being formed on the basis of the existing methodology, prerequisites arise for making incorrect managerial decisions at the federal level. The purpose of the study is to develop proposals for improving the methodology for evaluating the management of executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in the field of forest relations. A detailed study of the methodology for assessing the effectiveness of the management activity of the Kursk Region Forestry Committee within the framework of the implementation of the Kursk region state program “Forestry Development in the Kursk Region” leads to the realization, on the one hand, of its imperfection, and, on the other, of its potential to improve . The work proposes an improved methodology that solves the identified problems of the existing methodology and contributes to a more accurate and objective assessment of the effectiveness of management activities.

Keywords: sphere of forest relations, executive authority of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, management efficiency, forestry development program, management performance appraisal methodology.

 

Barkhudaryan D.A., Tichonova E.N. TECHNOGENIC TERRITORIES AS THE BASIS FOR RECREATIONAL RECULTIVATION

Abstract: Land reclamation and tourism are two areas in which the CIS countries lag far behind many Western countries at the present stage. In many areas where the mining industry is developed, there is a problem of huge land seizures, which negatively affects the environment and the economy of the regions. Implementation of the recreational direction of reclamation of mining facilities does not require large-scale capital expenditures, has prospects and takes into account the ecological and economic prospects of the region. To date, the development of industry has led to an increase in areas not suitable for economic activity – man-made areas. One of the significant problems of Russia is a large number of quarries, dumps, abandoned mines and other objects that have spent their life. In cities located in mining areas, the problem of restoration of disturbed landscapes is a priority, this is especially important for large agglomerations.

Keywords: technogenic territories, recreational reclamation, disturbed territories, quarries, recreation, reclamation, ecosystem services, Russia.

 

Belozorova D.V., Klevtsova V.V. DYNAMICS OF THE SUPERSPECIES POPULATIONSIZE OF UNGULATE IN THE VORONEZH REGION

Abstract: On the basis of data on the state of ungulate animal communities in the Voronezh region, the process of fluctuations in their number for the period 2014 - 2019 was studied. The interrelations of changes in the number of ungulates and the state of components of forest biocenosisare revealed.  It is established that wild ungulates have a significant impact on the forest environment, affect the processes of artificial and natural forest stand, so it is necessary to regulate their numbers in order to avoid causing significant harm to plantations.  In recent years the Voronezh region has seen a constant increase in prey of dendrofagous that is connected both with the increase of the fodder capacity of hunting grounds and carrying out of biotechnical measures. The uncontrolled extermination of predators has also disrupted natural population dynamics by minimizing their participation in the food chain. The exclusion of a powerful natural factor regulating the number and condition of the population of ungulates caused the accumulation of unfavorable trends in populations and brought to the fore irregular territorial movements such as the mechanism of self-regulation of density

Keywords: forest biocenosis, ungulatesanimals, population dynamics.

 

Gudkov A.Y.,Glaznev A.M. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE CENTRAL NAPANEE ROT BUTT LOGS OF PINE TREE

Abstract: To form a combinatorial model of bucking whips, it is necessary to determine in advance the yield of the obtained assortments of all presumably possible diameters. The developed equations of the generatrix will allow to calculate exactly the average or (median) diameter for the cut assortment, while due to a small non-explicit variation in the thickness of the whips in each section, there will be a dispersion of the diameters of the resulting assortments relative to the average value calculated by the model.

Keywords: optimization of cutting, whip, geometry of the filled rot, bucking, the maximum volume of assortments, models of trunks.

 

Gudkov A.Y., Zemlyakov A.A. OPTIMIZATION OF CUTTING BIRCH WHIPS IN THE PREPARATION OF PLYWOOD RAW MATERIALS

Abstract: an Important indicator characterizing the assortment is the quality of wood, which is determined mainly by the defects allowed in it and their size. In wood several defects are usually present at the same time, but the assessment of quality is made not on their set, and on one of them which negative influence is recognized as the greatest. Some defects have a large extent along the length of the trunk, the spread of the rest is local. This makes it possible to eliminate them or reduce them to the size allowed by a particular variety of forest products. Managing the opening of trunks can be most effectively used provided cutting Fund.

Keywords: optimization of cutting, whip, plywood raw materials, bucking, the maximum volume of assortments, models of trunks.

 

Dorofeeva V.D., Ryadnova T.S., Zubkova U.V. STUDY OF RECREATIONAL STABILITY HIGHWAYS IN VORONEZH

Abstract: The success of landscaping large industrial centers depends on the combination of biological characteristics of trees and shrubs with the environmental conditions of the introduction areas. To ensure the balanced functioning of woody plants and a comprehensive solution to the problems of preserving the ecological balance of the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly obvious that measures must be taken to study the diversity of plant potential with the identification of species with high adaptive abilities.

Creation of plantations resistant to technogenic influences is one of the main tasks of theoretical research and practical searches for landscaping highways. Seasonal changes in the natural habitat of tree species, production and transport emissions, violation of water and temperature conditions, a sharp deterioration and change lead to a change in the growth and development of tree species.

Ecological and biological changes show that maintaining in urban conditions the natural environment that is optimal for human life is only possible while maintaining a high level of condition of plants located in urban areas. This is what defines the tasks of many studies of woody plants in an urban environment.

Trunk streets, squares, boulevards are very diverse in composition and condition of tree species from single-breed (poplar, linden) to consisting of many species.

The assortment for landscaping purposes is determined by a complex set of requirements that take into account the target value of the object, the natural features of landscaping, the territory and other categories.

According to the inventory, the examination of the situation can be judged on the basis of the information in table 1. Of the 260 specimens, 26.9% are healthy without external signs of damage; these are 70 specimens of young lindens, 22.7% are weakened with a damaged crown and drying of individual branches. Dry top 13.1%, old dead wood 8.5%, fresh dead wood 11%, drying 10.4%, dry top 6.9%.

Keywords: tree species, condition, adaptation, gardening, inventory.

 

Efimova T.V.,Amarova T.S., Ukrainskaya E.V. METHODS FOR DISPOSAL AND PROCESSING TETRA PAK PACKAGING MATERIAL

Abstract: Tetra Pak's modern carton packaging is eco-friendly and versatile. It preserves the beneficial properties of natural products, minimizes product loss during transportation and storage, and also saves space on store shelves and at home. Tetra Pak packaging is 100% recyclable and a valuable recyclable material for many manufacturers. Therefore, the aim of this work was to search for existing methods of disposal and recycling of Tetra Pak packaging material. The main methods of disposal and recycling of Tetra Pak packaging are considered. The main method is recycling in paper mills. The process is similar to the processing of other types of waste paper. An innovative method of dry packaging dissolution has been developed in Russia, capable of changing this industry and giving it a new impetus for development. Its advantage is that as a result of a compact and simple technological process, two marketable products are obtained at once: cellulose wool and polyethylene flakes. Tetra Pak began to address the issue of recycling in the mid-1980s. Currently, in many European countries, the volume of recycling exceeds 50%. Based on recycled waste, you can get new composite materials, paper, cardboard and so on. To increase the amount of recyclable waste, it is necessary to introduce new recycling technologies, to raise public awareness about waste management and the rational use of resources.

Keywords: cardboard packaging, Tetra Pak, recycling, innovative method, recycling.

 

Zinovieva I.S., TolstovaYu.I. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING OF INNOVATIVELY ACTIVE ORGANIZATIONS

Abstract: In recent years, the concept of innovation is increasingly used in modern science. Innovations in the economy are, first of all, the production of new goods, the use of new resources, new technologies in production, as well as new markets, i.e. everything that affects the process of production and sale of products, while allowing you to earn additional income. In the process of production of innovative products, it is the accounting of production costs that occupies a key place in the management accounting system. The presence of a large number of structural units has a decisive influence on the formation of the management accounting system. The management process is based on the principle of centralized vertical integration.

Thus, in the process of implementing the activities of innovation-?active organizations, management accounting acts as a system that provides a comprehensive study of the costs of production of innovative products.

The use of this system will allow innovative and active organizations to obtain reliable, timely information for making strategic decisions aimed at achieving their competitive advantages.

The article considers the necessity of formation and development of management accounting of innovation-?active organizations. This need is ensured by effective cost management at different levels using methodological unity, which implies common requirements for information support, planning, accounting, cost analysis of innovation-?active organizations.

Keywords: cost accounting, innovation, managment accounting, innovation-active organization.

 

Zinovieva I.S., Sherne A.I.  INNOVATIVE AUDIT AS A MONITORING OF THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF FOREST SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS

Abstract: Соnsidеring аudit оf innоvаtivе асtivitу оf thе есоnоmiс еntitу, frоm роsitiоns оf mеthоdiсаl аnd mеthоdоlоgiсаl bаsеs, it is vеrу difficult tо rеvеаl diffеrеnсеs frоm аudit оf аnу оthеr dirесtiоn оf асtivitу оf thе оrgаnizаtiоn, оwing tо thеir рrасtiсаl аbsеnсе.

Аt thе sаmе timе, it shоuld bе nоtеd thаt in Rиssiа thе соnсерt оf innоvаtivе аudit hаs nоt уеt bесоmе univеrsаllу rесоgnizеd. Тhе ресuliаritу is mаnifеstеd in thе fасt thаt mоst mаnаgеrs оf fоrеst sесtоr оrgаnizаtiоns hаvе nоt уеt rеаlizеd thе еssеnсе аnd imроrtаnсе оf its imрlеmеntаtiоn; in thе аbsеnсе оf thе nесеssаrу rеfеrеnсе litеrаturе in Russiаn; in thе shоrtаgе оf sресiаlists in thе fiеld оf innоvаtivе аudit аnd in thе аbsеnсе оf аn аррrорriаtе lеgislаtivе frаmеwоrк.

Аs а rеsult, tоdау thе аррrоасhеs tо thе ехtеrnаl аudit оf innоvаtivе асtivitiеs аrе rеgulаtеd bу thе bаsiс rеgulаtоrу dосumеnts fоr аnу Gеnеrаl аudits. А stаtеmеnt оf thе sуstеm оf intеrnаl аudit оf innоvаtivе асtivitiеs is dеtеrminеd bу thе оrgаnizаtiоnаl сhаrасtеristiсs оf рrоduсtiоn, аs wеll аs thе rulеs аnd rеquirеmеnts lаid dоwn in thе ассоunting роliсу оf thе есоnоmiс еntitу.

Аt thе sаmе timе, innоvаtiоn аudit is а tооl thаt аllоws thе mаnаgеmеnt оf аn есоnоmiс еntitу tо idеntifу ехisting innоvаtiоns, idеntifу орроrtunitiеs аnd trеnds, аs wеll аs tо fоrm аn асtiоn рlаn fоr thе nеаr futurе. Аt its соrе, аn innоvаtivе аudit is аblе tо соnduсt а соmрrеhеnsivе аnаlуsis оf vаriоus sрhеrеs оf асtivitу оf аn есоnоmiс еntitу, аnd hеlр mаnаgеmеnt idеntifу кеу аrеаs оf thеir асtivitiеs, tакing intо ассоunt thе timе (сhrоnоlоgiсаl) sеquеnсе.

Кеуwоrds: аudit, innоvаtiоn аudit, insресtiоn, соntrоl, fоrеst sесtоr.

 

Ivanovsky V. P., Koroleva K.A. RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BAND SAW SAWING PROCESS

Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of the dynamic characteristics of the band sawing process. The object of study is: Band saw, softwood. The study used soft-leaved wood of aspen, poplar, alder, and linden. Researches of dynamic indicators were carried out during sawing with a band saw, a proppant knife was developed, optimal design parameters of the band saw were developed, prototypes of the band saw were made, laboratory tests of the band saw were carried out. In the process, the influence of dynamic loads on the deformability of wood was studied, the designs of band saws were studied, in the process of designing a new wood-cutting tool, the disadvantages of existing ones were minimized, and geometric parameters were calculated. A screening experiment was carried out when sawing with band saws to identify key influencing factors on the quality of the treated surface (roughness) and sawing force (sawing power). Rational values ​​of key influencing factors were determined. The effectiveness of the sawing regimes with band saws was evaluated. Algorithms for calculating the cutting mode of band saws were developed. The economic efficiency of the proposed technical and technological solutions was evaluated. Using the developed design of a band saw and technological regimes for sawing soft hardwood allows an economic effect of 1.021 million rubles. per year in the processing of 2777.6 m3 of wood.

Keywords: Band saw, sawing mode, resistance, deformability, roughness, power.

 

Kolganov, G.V., Sukhov M.I., Mikhin V.I.  AGROFORESTRY ARRANGEMENT OF ARTERRITORYMICHURINSKY DISTRICT, TAMBOV REGION

Abstract: Protective plantations transform agro-territories. The success of their growth and condition is determined by agrotechnical and forest cultural methods of cultivation. In pure poplar forest belts with a density of 3333 pcs / ha of plants aged 30 years, with an increase in the difference and width, a decrease in biometric growth indicators in diameter, height, and stock is observed by 3.9-8.3%. With differences in planting density (6666 and 3333 pcs./ha), the difference in growth is 7.2-14.2%. The introduction of balsamic poplar into the forest strips of oak oak and common ash at the age of 35 years indicates the influence of a fast-growing breed, where the preservation is lower (4.1-5.1%), growth in height and diameter. In a warm period of time in the daytime, shelterbelts in protected areas of the fields reduce the temperature of the surface air layer by 0.4-1.9 ° С. The best artificial linear plantations for land reclamation should be considered forest belts formed by blown and openwork structure. To successfully protect landscapes, it is necessary to combine the features of the rapid growth of rocks and form plantings of optimal structures.

Keywords: protective planting, growth, reclamation impact.

 

Kozhemyakin D.Yu., Manmarev V.V., Morkovina S.S. THE MECHANISMS FOR ATTRACTING INVESTMENTS IN THE FOREST COMPLEX OF RUSSIA

Abstract: The article presents the results of a study of existing mechanisms for attracting investment in the country's forest sector. The priority investment project is a preferential status, which is assigned to investment projects aimed at the creation of industries for the processing of wood and wood waste. Priority investment projects are implemented in 32 constituent entities of the Russian Federation. It has been established that there are a number of projects with systematic arrears in mandatory payments, as well as projects prematurely ceased to exist, even at the stages of the construction of production facilities. It is proved that the mechanism for implementing priority investment projects in the field of forest development is not effective enough for its accelerated development. Despite the presence of a significant number of ongoing priority investment projects, the latter are aimed at creating medium and small wood processing enterprises, and are being implemented with a large lag. The reasons for the unsatisfactory state of priority investment projects lie in the field of forest resources assessment and insufficient financial support. In this regard, it is necessary to modernize the existing mechanism for assessing and selecting promising enterprises of the timber industry complex to include them in priority investment projects in the field of forest development. To solve the above problems, it is advisable to use the tools of public-private partnership.

Keywords: investments, forestry complex, investment project in the field of forests.

 

Kulakov E.E., Sivolapov A.I. APPLICATION OF RESISTOGRAPH IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE AND EXTENT OF LARCH CULTURES AFFECTED BY FUNGAL DISEASE

Abstract: In recent years, the problem of forest cultivation is becoming highly relevant due to the deep differentiation of wood use and increasing volumes of logging. The tasks of increasing the productivity of forest lands, increasing the yield of the most valuable raw materials per unit area, improving the properties of wood growing on the vine, growing wood with specified qualities are becoming more and more urgent. Larch, growing in a vast area, in the process of evolution was differentiated by its hereditary properties. Testing of various ecotypes in geographical cultures on the territory of Voronezh allows to identify forms promising for the creation of highly productive and resistant plantations to adverse factors. The studies investigated the ecotype of Larix sukaczewii from the Sverdlovsk region 65-600 n, Perm and Chelyabinsk region 55-580 n.l., Arkhangelsk region 61-640 n.l., Ivanovo, Kostroma, Kalinin region 57-590 n.l., larch from Irkutsk region highland and lowland ecotype, East Kazakhstan region 490 n.l.. 1200 – 1800 m. above sea level, the Krasnoyarsk territory and Tuva 52-530 n.l. and European larch from the Baltic States. It is established that the width of early wood in samples of Siberian larch varies within 61-65%, Sukachev larch 65-67%, European larch 69%. The width is 17-19%, 17-20% and 25% respectively. The vital state of the Siberian larch, Sukachev and European larch ecotypes is quite satisfactory.

Keywords: Resistograph-44538, larch, tree rings.

 

Kantieva E.V., Ponomarenko L.V. INVESTIGATION OF UREA-FORMALDEHYDE HARDENERS RESINS OF DIFFERENT GRADES

Abstract: urea-Formaldehyde resins of different grades differ in the formaldehyde contained in them. Formaldehyde is a carcinogenic substance that adversely affects the environment and humans in particular. In the manufacture of materials based on formaldehyde reduction is given great attention. The curing of resins with different formaldehyde contents is different and has not yet been sufficiently studied. The more free formaldehyde is contained in the initial resin, the more formic acid is formed and, accordingly, the faster the polycondensation reaction with the formation of methylene and methylene-ether bonds. In modern urea-formaldehyde resins with a formaldehyde content of 0.01-0.05%, the curing reaction with the classical hardener – ammonium chloride proceeds differently and cracks and fractures are observed in the cured adhesive. The paper presents a comparative evaluation of hardeners of urea-formaldehyde resins in terms of their influence on the physical and chemical properties of working solutions (gelatinization time at 100 0 C, pH of liquid and cured glue). As a hardener of low-toxic urea-formaldehyde resins, it is possible to use ammonium silicofluoride. The resulting materials have a lower value of formaldehyde emission, improved biostability and the required physical and mechanical properties.

Keywords: urea-formaldehyde resin, hardener, ammonium silicofluoride, formaldehyde.

 

Kacou N.R. INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF FORESTRY OF THE REPUBLIC OF COTE D’IVOIRE

Abstract: timely and reliable statistics on forest products are critical to investment decisions and policy formulation. Improving the quality and availability of forest products data has become a key priority as Africa strives to achieve its economic development and sustainable forest management goals. The aim of the study is to analyze the development of forestry in the Republic of Cote d’Ivoire on the basis of statistical data, to identify the causes of deforestation and to develop innovative directions of development. The methodological basis of the study consists of methods of analysis and synthesis, economic-statistical and dialectical methods, methods of comparative analysis and expert assessments. Innovation in the forest sector is an activity aimed at introducing innovations that have high efficiency in production, brought to the final product, which has a high scientific and technical potential with a maximum coefficient of use of raw materials. The purpose of innovative activity in the forest sector of economy is: increase of efficiency of process of production and the maximum use of a material resource. Innovation in the work of the forest sector opens up new opportunities in the work of the integrated structure of the technological chain: forest cultivation – the final products and its constituent business, banking and public organizations. The real steps in the development of the forest sector of the Republic of Cote d’Ivoire are: the state forest inventory; the formation of an effective financial and pricing policy in the use, protection, protection and reproduction of forests; the improvement of forest legislation; the development of joint partnerships between private business and the state in this sector.

Keywords: forestry, investments, innovation development, Cote d’Ivoire.

 

Kartashova N.P., Korotkai U.S. LANDSCAPE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE PARK «NORTHERN FOREST» OF THE CITY OF VORONEZH

Abstract: The problem of urban greening is relevant in the modern world. Urban parks are important public service facilities, which occupy a significant part in the overall balance of landscaping of residential areas and neighborhoods. The current pace of urbanization requires the improvement of the environment, protection from dust, toxic gases and urban noise, which together harm the health of the population. Therefore, it is necessary to take a closer approach to the issues of landscaping and improvement of settlements. The object of the study was the territory of the Park "Northern forest", located in the Kominternovsky district of Voronezh city, where the construction of residential complexes immeasurably growing and green spaces – are reduced, with the result that there is a shortage of green areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the state of the territory of the preserved Park and recommend measures for landscaping and improvement.

During the research of the Park was carried out landscape and environmental assessment, which includes the definition of the type of spatial structure, stability class and assessment of the state of plantations, sanitary and aesthetic assessment, recreational capacity. The functional zoning of the territory of the object was developed, and the range of plants most stable in these conditions was recommended..

Keywords: green spaces, Park, stability, landscape and environmental assessment, functional zoning, assortment of plants.

 

Kvasov O.N., Semenova E.V.  PRE-REVOLUTIONARY HISTORIOGRAPHY OF FORESTRY IN RUSSIA

Abstract: The article discusses the history of the study in the Russian scientific literature of forestry and forest management in the Russian Empire. The periodization of the historiography of forestry and its main thematic areas are proposed. The works of experts in the field of forestry, as well as historians, are examined. It is proposed to divide historiography into three periods: pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern. In accordance with this periodization, a brief description and analysis of the main studies in the history of forestry in pre-revolutionary Russia is given. In this period, the following thematic areas were identified: the works of forestry experts - scientists, practitioners, officials; studies on the history of forestry related to forest policy development, i.e. creation and improvement of the state forest management system; official departmental publications on the history of the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of State Property, Forest Department. As a result of the analysis of these sources, the authors came to the conclusion that pre-revolutionary forest science in Russia developed in parallel with the Russian historical process, which was influenced by periods of borrowing the achievements of foreign science, features of state economic policy, a change in economic cycles and general trends in the country's historical development

Keywords: history, historiography, forestry, forest management, periodization.

 

Korzhova O.V. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIONS IN THE FOREST SECTOR

Abstract: The article develops an analysis of the development prospects of the timber industry of the Russian Federation. He considers in more detail the problems of the forest segment and their possible solutions. The article will suggest ways to optimize the development of this industry, due to the fact that the problem of this industry is very relevant and in demand throughout the world.

Keywords: forest complex, innovations, wood, forest resources, investments, woodworking industry.

 

Kolyadin P.A. ANALYSIS OF MODERN AND PERSPECTIVE SYSTEMS OF MOBILE ACCESSORIES

Abstract: The paper considers the problem of systematization of existing designs of suspended mobile means. The design features of the passive suspension are described. Suspensions with automatic regulation of the stiffness of the elastic element are considered. The work gives a system of adaptive suspensions indicating other vehicles. The definition of adaptive suspension. The design of a semi-active suspension with consideration of dampers is described. The definition of this suspension. The design of a slowly active and fully active suspension of mobile devices is described. The advantages and disadvantages of these types of suspension are indicated. The power consumption of the control system and the frequency range of each suspension are considered. Conclusionson the work are given.

Keywords: suspension classification, adaptive suspension, passive suspension, active suspension, semi-active suspension.

 

Levchenko K.V. POST-FIRE SUCCESSION IN MOUNTAIN FORESTS OF CRIMEA

Abstract: The territory of the Crimean Peninsula is 27,000 km2 of which forests make up 2903 km2, coniferous forests make up about 13% of the forest area, which is equal to 377 km2. Every year there are forest fires in the mountain forests of the Crimea. Indigenous pine plantations the most dangerous in the fire relation are concentrated in two large especially protected natural territories of the Crimea Yalta mountain- forest nature reserve and The National Park "Crimean".The studies were carried out in plantations represented by Pinussylvestris L. and Pinuspallasiana D. Don, passed by grassroots forest fires of different intensity (fugitive and persistent).Even after grassroots forest fires, changes in the composition and number of plants occur in forest phytocenoses.The course of post-fire successions on burning depends on a number of factors, both abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic.All species of plants inhabiting place after forest fire in the years following the fire can be divided into 4 groups: plants – pyrophytes, plants – explerents, plants - patients, plants – violents.Plants characterize the stage of post-fire successions, as well as their course.Grassroots forest fires cause irreversible transformations, in some cases with the change of coniferous plantations to deciduous ones.

Keywords: post-fire succession, Pinuspallasiana, Pinussilvestris,plants – pyrophytes, plants – explerents, plants - patients, plants – violents.

 

Lapshina M.L., Lugovoi D.A. AUTOMATED REVERSE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS OSMOSIS

Abstract: The use of membranes from the point of view of separation of water mixtures of various origin and composition is in daily demand and is widely used in such industries as: chemical, petrochemical, gas, pharmaceutical, microbiological, nuclear, electronic, food, agriculture, medicine, water treatment for various purposes , in analytical instrumentation and others. The use of membranes in various fields of industry is part of the scientific and technological progress of modern production, and occupy a leading position in the national programs of developed countries. The distinctive properties of membrane processes for the separation of water mixtures are the simplicity of the hardware device, high efficiency, reliability, low energy consumption, minimization of mass characteristics, ergonomics. In connection with the stringent applicable requirements for water quality for use in various technological operations at enterprises, reverse osmosis systems are widely used to clean it. The paper presents a study of methods for increasing the efficiency of a microporous membrane in a microfiltration element by determining the optimal filtration parameters and regeneration methods, and analysis of other existing approaches in the cleaning system. Comparative characteristics of existing approaches to solving the issue of treatment are given, and the need to use a drinking water treatment system through an automated reverse osmosis approach is substantiated. The effectiveness of this approach has been verified experimentally, the technical parameters of the process, as well as the results of the experiment are presented in the article.

Keywords: membrane, purification system, process, parameters, water.

 

Lenchenkova O.Y., Tsarev V.A., Tsareva R.P. RESULTS OF ASPEN HYBRIDES GROWTH IN THE NURSERY DEPARTMENT

Abstract: The results of 30 variants of aspen crossbreeding are highlighted, hybrid seedlings obtained from 19 variants of crossbreeding. 936 hybrid seedlings were grown. The average height of one-year-olds varied from 12 to 61 cm, an average of 39 cm. The best in growth energy at the age of 1 (48-61 cm) was noted in 4 families: 02.01 × 08.02, 10.03 × 32.03, 18.02 × 07.02 and 10.03 × 07.02. The height of 2-year-old seedlings was 70 cm. The best at this age in height (106-130 cm) were the families 02-01 × 08-02, 18-02 × 07-02, 10-03 × 07-02 (ranks 1-3).

Keywords: aspen hybrids, crossbreeding, survival, growth energy.

 

Levin S.V. PINUS SYLVESTRIS F. CONGLOMERATA MANIFESTATION IN THE LIPETSK OBLAST

Abstract: There are a wide variety of Scots pine (Pinussylvestris) forms within each climatic and soil ecotype, each of them has unique characteristics. Some forms have highly valuable properties that may become the object of selection. Prominent among these is the conglomerata form of Scots pine (P. silvestrisf.conglomerata), characterized by cones adhering closely together, selected in the Lipetsk oblast. In terms of its development the conglomerata form of Scots pine, described in this paper, has heterosis of all 3 types according to A. Gustafson (Sweden): The reproductive one, i.e. increased fertility and greater seed productivity; the somatic one, i.e. strong development of vegetative parts of the plant; and the adaptive one, i.e. increased hybrids’ viability. The selected form requires further careful research on a large number of specimens. In the unfavorable growing conditions of the Lipetsk oblast special purpose-oriented forest plantations (for example plantations of Christmas trees) сould benefit from the selected form’s features (early and abundant production of seed, multiple tops), the form can also be used in landscape gardening.

Keywords: P. sylvestrisf.conglomerata, heterosis effect, cone's phyllotaxis.

 

Mezhova A.S. PROBLEMS OF INTRODUCING INNOVATIONS IN THE FOREST SECTOR OF THE SPARSELY FORESTED REGION

Abstract: in the context of modern globalization, conducting successful business operations is impossible without the regular introduction of innovations. The use of innovations in the activities of enterprises in the forest sector will help maintain competitiveness in the market and keep up with the times.In Russia, the forestry sector is in urgent need of modernization, stagnation is currently observed and as a result, the share of the forest industry in the country's GDP is less than 5%, and this taking into account the fact that in our country 25% of the world's forest supply is concentrated. Inthemostvulnerable position is the forest sector of the low-forest zone, as it has specific features of the economy, the limiting nature of the resource potential and a number of restrictions on conducting economic activities in the forest.When developing innovations, it is necessary to take into account the ecological features of this zone, since here the reduction in forest area can lead to disaster, which means that innovations should help preserve ecological diversity. Innovations in the forest complex of the low-forest zone should be aimed at finding a balance between making a profit andmaintainingforestplantations.

Keywords: forest industry, innovations in the forest sector, forestry sector, non-forest zone, innovations, innovations, innovation policy, innovation index, innovation environment.

 

Mikhina V.V., Kharchenko N.N. THE ROLE OF PROTECTIVE PLANTATIONS IN IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF LANDSCAPES

Abstract: Artificial linear plantations alter the environmental conditions in landscapes. During the growing season, microbiological activity is noted in the surface layer of soil. In the strip zones of 25H (heights) of stands, among the reclamation objects of wind-blown type, the cellulose-destructive activity is higher by 3.1-6.9% compared with unprotected landscape areas (35-40H). On the soil cover, among plantations of openwork type, microbiological activity is 34.8-36.8%. Among plantations of dense type, microbiological activity is 32.6-33.8%. The difference between zones of influence and control points (35-40H) is 0.9-4.4%. A redistribution of nitrates occurs in the soil cover, which depends on the characteristics of the plantations that have a meliorative effect. In landscapes among biologically protective objects in the zone 0-30H of wind-blown structure the nitrifying activity is 46.4-46.9 mg / kg, in the openwork structure is 42.1-42.9 mg / kg, in the dense structure 36.4- 36.8 mg / kg. Plantations of wind-blown and openwork types have the greatest efficiency. They contribute to an increase in nitrifying activity of 6.0-10.3 mg / kg of soil.

Keywords: ecological reclamation role, protective plantings, soil activity.

 

Mokshin V.U. , Chernyshov M.P. FORESTRY AND TECHNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PINE FOREST REPRODUCTION ON THE BURNED AREAS 2010 ГОДА IN SUBURBAN FORESTRY OF THE VORONEZH REGION

Abstract: Forestry and technological features and tendencies of the process of natural and artificial reforestation in the burned areas formed after forest fires in the summer of 2010 in the Left-bank precinct forestry of the Suburban Forestry of the Voronezh Region have been considered. The quality of pine forest crops with close canopy has been estimated. As of 01.01.2012, the total area of fires in the forest fund of Prigorodnoye Forestry (after the fires) amounted to 1114.9 hectares. As of 01.01.2019 their area decreased by 8 times due to natural and artificial reforestation and amounted to 138 hectares. Pine forest cultures were created in spring and autumn by planting 2-year-old seedlings in the bottom of furrows, cut by a PKL-70 plow, manually using Kolesov's planting iron or mechanized with the help of SLN-1A forestry machines. The survival of 1-3-year-old pine crops (according to the autumn inventory) varies by year, amounting from 45 to 66% in different areas of the burned areas. Pine forest crops with close canopy in the trial plots are characterized by good growth in height and are rated I or II quality classes according to 56-99-93 Industrial standard. The average sanitary condition of forest crops is 1.16-1.23, and the natural reforestation is 1.25-1.30. In case of natural reforestation on burning areas, pine plants have different ages, from 1 year to 8 years, and are unevenly distributed over the area. The closing process is extended for 10 years or more. The maximum increase in height in plants in the forming forest stands of natural origin was noted in 5-7 years of life. It is 50-60 cm per year.

Keywords: burned areas, natural and artificial pine reforestation, survival, preservation and growth of forest crops, quality assessment.

 

Meshkov D.A. THE MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE DESIGN PROCESS IN THE MULTI-AGENT ENVIRONMENT OF VKBM

Abstract: The structure of the design process with a multi-agent approach to solving the problem of controlling the design process in a distributed environment of a virtual furniture design bureau is considered, based on the use of a multi-agent network model.

Keywords: automated design, multi-agent system, virtual desing office furniture, project stages, model operations, project, manage the design process, agent, metagraphy.

 

Mosyagina E.A. PRODUCTION FRANCHISING AND PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION DIFFICULTIES

Abstract: The concept of production.  What is the essence of production franchising.  Positive and negative sides of business. Does this model have a future?  Whether it is possible to implement and work successfully, we will consider in this article.

Keywords: Production franchising, franchise, franchisor, franchisee.

 

Mikhailova M.I. GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF FOREST-STEPPE AND STEPPE ECOPYPES OF SCOTS PINE IN GEOGRAPHIC CULTURES

Abstract: the article presents data on the growth and productivity of forest-steppe and steppe ecotypes of Scots pine in the geographical cultures of the Voronezh region based on taxation indicators. An assessment is given of the life state of ecotypes of Scots pine in geographical cultures at the Stupino Field training ground of the Voronezh Region. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) - is one of the most common types of woody plants in Russia and neighboring countries. Pine stands account for about 18% of the forested area, with a timber stock of 9.7 billion m3. Growth and productivity of crops depend not only on the geographical origin of the seeds, but also on environmental, phenological and individual variability within the same climatic region. These forms of variability are taken into account when studying climate types. The study of the growth, productivity and living conditions of the geographical crops of Scots pine in the Voronezh region are important in solving urgent problems of artificial reforestation, as a basis for obtaining seeds, in order to create highly productive, sustainable plantings in specific conditions. These circumstances determine the relevance of the research direction.

Keywords: Scots pine, geographical cultures, growth studies, productivity studies, state of life, growth indicator.

 

Maksimchuk P.A., Matveev S.M. TO THE STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF OLD-GROWTH PINE STANDS IN THE RESERVE REGIME

Abstract: The structural and functional organization of natural old-aged pine in the reserve regime is analyzed. The main results are as follows. Based on the dating of samples (cores) of pine wood, it was revealed that the studied pine stands were of different ages (190 and 120 years), i.e. There are two generations of pine. The dating of samples (cores) of pine wood with a diameter of 32-36 cm, showed that trees of this diameter can have an age of both 190 and 120 years.  With an increase in environmental density, i.e. with an increase in the feeding area for each individual tree, the average diameter of the stand also increases. The weighted average category of condition for both all trees on the PPR, and for every the pine separately, is 1.8, i.e. the stand is weakened. There is a weak correlation between the “Ecological Density Index” and the category of tree condition: the correlation coefficient r = 0.23.

Keywords: pine forest stand, pine. 

 

Malanyak S.V.  SCIENTIFIC AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INNOVATION TYPE PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Abstract: This article discusses the main features and nature of the implementation of innovative projects in Russia. The main stages of implementation of the innovation project were also identified and the schematic diagrams of linear, nonlinear and chain models of the innovation process were analyzed. The study found that such models do not pay enough attention to the stage of the life cycle of innovation. It is also determined that the majority of projects remain unrealized due to poor socio-economic justification and planning in accordance with the real needs of the market, as well as due to the choice of the wrong production and technological way to implement an innovative idea.

Keywords: assessment, planning, management of innovative development and innovative projects.

 

Morkovina S.S., Puzikova M.V.,Manmarev D.V. TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION SUPPORT TOOLS

Abstract: the article presents the results of a study of the impact of globalization of the economy on the process of creating and commercializing innovations. The modern process of globalization, the growth rate of the global economy have a strong impact on scientific, technical and industrial activities, changing tools and technologies for managing the commercialization of innovations.
The factors that are of paramount importance for the creation and commercialization of innovations are identified and systematized: the lack of own financial resources for conducting research R&D and testing, the low level of cooperation with industry enterprises on the creation of innovative products, the duration of the R&D cycle, the absence of benefits and preferences for enterprises engaged in independent search R&D, underdeveloped mechanisms of public-private partnerships, lack of experience in patenting RIDs, not a sufficient level of development of the RID commercialization infrastructure.

It is established that the main tools to support innovation are:
- financial support of innovation processes, including preferences and tax benefits for enterprises engaged in independent search and research and development;
- Intensive use of partnership mechanisms between the public, public and private sectors;
- improvement of patenting procedures for RID, assistance in securing the rights to the results of intellectual activity to enterprises of the real sector of the economy;
- development of technology transfer tools, including the development of an infrastructure to support the commercialization of innovations. It has been proven that financial and infrastructural mechanisms to support innovation are of primary importance.

Keywords: innovation, globalization, management of the commercialization of innovation.

 

Mikheev Yu.Yu., Moiseeva E.V.  ECOLOGICAL AND ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY OF RECREATION ZONES OF THE VORONEZH RESERVOIR

Abstract: With the development of environmental and socio-hygienic monitoring systems, interest in the analysis and assessment of the quality of water resources in the region is growing. Assessment of water quality of surface water resources and water-recreational potential in regional studies is relatively rare. The aim of the study was to conduct an ecological and analytical analysis of the water of the Voronezh reservoir in places of recreational water use of the urban population. The most favorable was the section of the water area from the upper reservoir to the railway bridge of the station. Hatching (between water sampling points 1 - 2). On the section between the two bridges (Severny and Chernavsky), the trend of increasing concentrations of many ingredients of the surface water of the reservoir (sampling points 3 and 4) is confidently starting. The most unfavorable in terms of hydrochemical indicators was the section of the water area from the VOGRES bridge to the dam of the reservoir. The average concentrations of pollutants over the past five years in the range 500 m below the sewage discharge were significantly higher than the background for heavy metals, petroleum products, ammonium and phosphate ions (points 7, 8). The above studies indicate instability of the water quality of the Voronezh reservoir in recreational areas. The weak manifestation of the processes of natural self-purification of water in the reservoir, due to the high anthropogenic load, does not provide the necessary water quality.

Keywords: Voronezh reservoir, water quality, environmental and analytical analysis.

 

Pridvorova A.V., Drapalyuk M.V. SIMULATION OF INTERACTION BETWEEN DISC SAW BLADE OF A BUSH CUTTER WITH WOODY VEGETATION

Abstract: The methods of silvicultural care for crops, first of all - clarification (high percentage of crop death due to the damping of undesirable wood and shrub vegetation), as well as technical means used in forestry for silvicultural care of crops.  It is offered to apply a brush cutter of manipulative type with disk working bodies on the basis of a wheel tractor for cutting of a small Bush. Mathematical models for determination of the basic kinematic and constructive parameters of a disk saw for cutting of undesirable wood and Bush vegetation are made. Obtained according to the feed per tooth from the circumferential speed of the saw at the proper speed of thrusting the saw, and also based on feed per tooth speed of thrusting the saw when the corresponding peripheral speed of the saw. The optimization of the parameters of the process of cutting with a circular saw of tree-shrub vegetation stems is carried out. The optimum parameters: the circumferential speed of 14 m/s, feed per tooth up to 1.9 mm diameter circular saws - 0.4 m, the number of teeth on a circular saw -108 PCs.

Keywords: kinematics, cutting, addiction, mathematical mode, manipulator.

 

Pozdnyakov A.K., Bartenev I.M. ANALYSIS OF WORKING PROCESSES OF EQUIPMENT FOR PREVENTION AND EXTINGUISHING FOREST FIRES

Abstract: For the prevention and suppression of forest fires, use such technical means as: forest plows, soil-throwing machines. Currently, the machines are energy-intensive and inefficient, since the tools are mounted on tractors with a creeper reducer, and the cutters have to work in the conditions of the sodden upper soil layers, which significantly reduces the quality and productivity of the process. A comparative analysis of technical means and experimental studies of a prototype forest fire soil-throwing machine with a combined working body was carried out.

Keywords: extinguishing, soil-throwing machine, dependence, energy intensity.

 

Popova V.V., Tikhonova E.N. USE OF EXPANDED MICA AS A COMPONENT OF ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATE

Abstract: the article is devoted to the study of the influence of mineral additive – vermiculite on the temperature regime of artificial substrate. In conditions of deterioration of the ecological situation in megacities on the one hand and the increasing shortage of urban areas for landscaping on the other, the task of growing plants on artificial grounds becomes vital for residents of large cities. One of the directions of its solution can be the development and creation of artificial soils with properties that contribute to the creation of optimal conditions for the existence of green spaces. Thus, as a result of the experiment, it was found a decrease in temperature maxima in direct dependence on the content of expanded mica in the substrate and concluded that the possible use of the mineral as a component of structural soils to create green landscapes on artificial grounds.

Keywords: artificial substrate, exfoliated mica, temperature regime, plants.

 

Posmetev V.I., Nikonov V.O. SIMULATING MODEL OF RECOVERY OF HYDRAULIC ENERGY IN A PNEUMO-HYDRAULIC FIFTH-TAPE DEVICE OF A FOREST TRUCK WITH A SEMI-TRAILER

Abstract: It was revealed that the arising increased dynamic loads during pulling, acceleration and braking of a forest tractor with a semitrailer lead to a decrease in its speed, increased fuel consumption, performance degradation, increased wear in the coupled parts of the fifth wheel coupling and deterioration of stability during braking of a forest tractor with a semitrailer. The relevance of increasing the turnover of timber by forestry tractors with semitrailers by constructive improvement of their fifth wheel coupling has been substantiated. A perspective diagram of a recuperative pneumohydraulic fifth wheel coupling device of a forest tractor with a semitrailer is presented. The results of simulation modeling are presented, which made it possible to evaluate the possibility of the functioning of a forest tractor with a semitrailer equipped with a regenerative pneumohydraulic fifth wheel coupling in various road conditions. The dependence of the speed of movement and the oscillation frequency of the semi-trailer of a forest tractor on the intensity of accumulation of hydraulic energy in the pneumohydraulic accumulator of a regenerative pneumohydraulic fifth wheel coupling has been revealed. The dependence of the accumulated hydraulic energy on the average height of the irregularities of the supporting surface is established. Based on the constructed dependence of the influence of the diameters of the hydraulic cylinders of the regenerative pneumohydraulic fifth wheel coupling on the average recuperated power, their optimal values ​​are determined.

Keywords: energy recovery, pneumohydraulic accumulator, recuperative pneumatic-hydraulic fifth wheel coupling, timber tractor with semitrailer, recuperated power, driving conditions.

 

Panyavina E.A., Averina M.S. THE PROBLEM OF STAFFING OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS

Abstract: Solving the problems of staffing local governments is one of the most important tasks, which allows us to solve many issues of municipal districts and organizations. The rejuvenation of aging staff, the introduction of the latest approaches in the municipal management system, a modern look at professional activities, and a high motivation for changes are the opportunities that open up to the municipality through the solution of staffing problems. The purpose of the study is to identify the problems of staffing the administration of the Vorobevsky municipal district and to develop directions for their elimination. An analysis of the state of the staff of the administration of the Vorobevsky municipal district was carried out, it was revealed that the administration is dominated by employees aged 40-50, most of the organization’s employees are women, the average monthly wage per employee is low, there is a high turnover of staff, and there is also irregular working day, overtime, lack of career prospects. Based on the findings and taking into account the obtained research data, recommendations were formulated aimed at improving staffing in the administration of the Vorobyevsky district of the Voronezh region. The results obtained open up new areas of scientific research.

Keywords: staffing, local government, staffing potential, administration of the municipal district.

 

Popikov P.I., Evsikov I.D. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE LOCATION AND PARAMETERS OF A HYDRAULIC DRIVE OF THE LIFTING MECHANISM OF THE FOREST MANIPULATOR

Abstract: The applying of manipulator-type machines is widely used for assorted timber harvesting in the Russian forest industry. The boom lift mechanism is the most loaded mechanism in such machines. Additional studies of the kinematics, dynamics and layout of the hydraulic drive mechanism for lifting the boom group are necessary to increase the technical level of forest manipulators. New developments and reasonable proposals for improving the hydraulic system are required to avoid premature failure of hydraulic equipment, that is used on manipulator-type machines. The developments should increase durability and minimize the pressure that occurs during the operation of the equipment.

Ways of the reducing the dynamic overload of the design of forestry manipulators depending on the points of attachment of the hydraulic cylinders of the lifting mechanism to the movable and fixed elements of the processing equipment are described in the proposed work.A mathematical model for determining the basic kinematic and structural parameters of the hydraulic drive of the lifting mechanism of the forest manipulator has been compiled.

The parameters of the hydraulic drive of the lifting mechanism of the forestry arm are optimized.It has been established that optimization of the positions of the points of attachment of the hydraulic cylinders of the lifting mechanism to the movable and fixed elements of the technological equipment of the forestry manipulators, taking into account the flexibility of the elastic elements, will reduce the bursts of pressure of the working fluid during transient modes of lifting of timber loads.

Keywords: kinematics, addiction, mathematical model, manipulator.

 

Razinkov E.M., Rud A.A. DEPENDENCE OF THE QUALITATIVE EXIT OF THE INTERLINE INTERVAL ON HIGH-QUALITY STRUCTURE OF RAW MATERIALS BY PRODUCTION OF PLYWOOD

Abstract: Qualitative exit of interline interval by production of plywood exerts considerable impact on high-quality exit of plywood what the profit of the enterprise significantly depends on. One of ways of increase of qualitative exit of interline interval is use of bigger share by the enterprise of raw materials (churak) of the 1st grade. When receiving interline interval from such grade of raw materials losses of wood in the form of generally waste veneer decrease. Besides, when using such raw materials it is possible to reduce diameter of nedolushchenny part of churak (pencil). All this raises volume and qualitative exit of interline interval that allows to get to the enterprise more profits. Usually, the plywood enterprises have raw materials of the 1st grade from 25 to 35% of total quantity of raw materials for the production program. The known calculation procedures on formulas of qualitative exit of interline interval depending on high-quality structure of raw materials allow to receive required dependence, however they labor-consuming and take a lot of time. The department of mechanical technology of wood, together with department of computer facilities of VGLTU, has developed the computer program allowing to find quickly and precisely required dependence. Using such program us required dependence according to which has been established at quantity of raw materials of the 1st grade of 25% grade interline interval exit Elite has made 9,24% of total quantity of high-quality interline interval, and exit of interline interval of the 1st grade has made 32,16%. At quantity of raw materials of the 1st grade of 35% these digits make already respectively 10,46 and 34,36%.   

Keywords: plywood, interline interval, high-quality structure of raw materials, qualitative exit of interline interval.

 

Razinkov E.M., Chernyaev A.Е. RESEARCH OF QUALITY OF FACING LAMELS FOR PRODUCTION OF PARQUET BOARDS

Abstract: Now for covering of floors of dwelling houses not the block parquet from parquet friezes, and parquet boards is even more often used. The main advantages of parquet boards before block parquet are knitted with the smaller number of defects, lower labor costs during the laying and repair of covering of floor, smaller cost value. One of main types of parquet boards are the single-band boards with front covering from integral level (lamel) of sawn interline interval, received from wood of fine broad-leaved species (oak, ash-tree, etc.) with the increased wear resistance of surface during operation of boards. Basis of board are rails. Such boards make on TU-5361-402-46195150-2011 of CJSC LES EXPORT 13,8 - 14, 2 thick; 122 - 230 wide and 900 - 2400 mm long.

One of difficulties of technology of parquet boards is receiving qualitative sawn level of the set thickness. On the stated above TU about different thickness of levels it is not specified, but different thickness of ready board maximum deviation of thickness of which is provided has to make ±0,2 mm. We recognize from the fact that maximum deviation of thickness of level has to be no more limit deviation of hulled interline interval same, as well as level, thickness. IN ACCORDANCE WITH GOST 99-2016 for interline interval of hardwood 1, 25 - 4,0 mm thick maximum deviation makes ±0,10 mm. As a result of researches it is established that in connection with complexity of production of levels of identical thickness their different thickness such is that the deviation of thickness of levels from maximum deviations makes about 30% that is defects of products. For reduction of defects it is necessary to provide number of the technology measures directed to reduction of different thickness of levels from fine woods of wood.

Keywords: parquet board, lamel, level, breed of wood, different thickness.

 

Ryadnova T.S., Serikov M.T. FEATURES OF ASSESSMENT OF SOIL DAMAGE BY TECHNICAL MEANS

Abstract: The assessment of damage to soil cover by technical means in recreational forests of Somovsky forestry of the Voronezh region is carried out. There are two features of calculation of the magnitude of the harm. The first feature: the type of violation of forest legislation- "unauthorized removal, destruction of soils", should be attributed only to the "strong degree of soil damage", using the scale characteristics of soil damage, proposed by VNIILM in "Guidelines for planning, design, acceptance, inventory, write-off of reforestation and afforestation and evaluation of the effectiveness of reforestation and afforestation", 2011. The second feature: in the tax assessment of harm and interpretation of the concept of "predominant main forest-forming breed in the subject of the Russian Federation" it is necessary to use the "highest rate of payment per unit volume of wood" of the breed that prevails in the subject of the Russian Federation not by area but by stock.

On the example of the object under study, if we do not take into account these features in assessing the damage caused to forests as a result of damage to the soil cover during the illegal uprooting of trees by shifting them with a tractor with a bucket, the amount of damage could be wrongfully overstated by 5 times in determining the extent of damage to the soil cover and 4.5 times in the tax assessment of damage.

Keywords: soil cover, degree of damage, damage assessment.

 

Starikov A.V., Naydenko V.V. ONE APPROACH TO STIMULATE THE GROWTH OF GREENHOUSE PLANTS USING ELECTROCHEMICALLY ACTIVATED WATER IN A SPECIAL FOGGING SYSTEM

Abstract: the article describes a method and system of automation that provides the ability to stimulate plant growth by spraying electrochemically activated water in a greenhouse a special fogging system.

Keywords: electrochemical activation of water, catholyte, anolyte, automatic system.

 

Sibiryatkina I.V., Bashkardina I.A. TOOL OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS OF THE ENTERPRISE

Abstract: In modern conditions, woodworking enterprises need strategic competitiveness management tools for sustainable business development. The article considers issues related to the scientific justification for the formation of a system of critical indicators of the competitiveness of an industrial enterprise, aimed at assessing the level of competitiveness in areas of activity. This assessment is carried out in dynamics, its purpose is to form a portfolio of management decisions aimed at preventing crisis processes that adversely affect the competitiveness of an economic entity.

Кеуwоrds: competitiveness, indicators, field of observation, diagnostics, management decisions.

 

Sibiryatkina I.V., Chupriy V.A. THE MAIN APPROACHES TO MAINTAINING TAX ACCOUNTING OF VAT AT THE ENTERPRISE

Abstract: In the tax system of the Russian Federation, so-called indirect taxes, which include value added tax, are of particular importance. This circumstance is related to the amount of this tax received by the state budget, the share of which in recent years exceeds 40-45% of the total amount of tax payments. The existing tax legislation in relation to VAT has undergone numerous changes over the years of the formation of the tax, which, in turn, could not but have an impact on the correctness of the formation of the tax base and the payment of tax by taxpayers.

The imperfection of the legislation on VAT, the lack of effective tools to control the completeness and accuracy of tax calculation require effective measures to eliminate the existing contradictions on the value added tax.

 Tax accounting at the enterprise is the basis for the formation of the correctness of the calculation of VAT. The tax registers used to form the tax base and tax deduction for VAT should fully comply with the legality of applying approaches to the formation of tax payments to the budget.

Кеуwоrds: value added tax, tax accounting, accounting method, tools.

 

Storobubtseva T.N., Pyadukhova K.N., Gorkavenko K.Yu. APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN RESEARCH PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL

Abstract: The article discusses composite material consisting of industrial and wood waste. A huge number of small and medium-sized timber processing industries that are created and liquidated in Russia over the past twenty years are surrounded by unused wood waste, the volumes of which are constantly increasing. There are several ways to recycle wood waste. The most promising is their use as a filler in composite materials. A mathematical model of the structure of a wood polymer-sand composite material is considered, which allows simulating the dependence of damping properties on the parameters of the initial components, external influences, and production technology.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate, glyoxal, wood waste, mathematical models, composite material.

 

Storobubtseva T.N., Axomitny A.A., Gorbunova M.I. RESEARCH OF THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIESCOMPOSITE BUILDING BLOCKS

Abstract: Using mathematical modeling, it was found that a wood polymer composite has several times better thermal insulation properties than concrete-based building materials. Building materials based on the developed composite have a higher heat capacity than pure wood, which allows them to better withstand a constant indoor temperature with significant daily fluctuations in external temperature, which is a positive property for building blocks made of a polymer composite. A series of real tests was carried out to assess the reliability of the results. A mathematical model of a wood polymer composite has been developed, which allows studying the heat-insulating properties of a composite material, a method for producing samples, and the type of wood filler. The modeling technique and analysis of the results are presented.

Keywords: heat capacity, composite, thermal diffusivity, polymer, construction products, wood filler.

 

Storobubtseva T.N., Rybalov I.A., Shatalova A.V. INFLUENCE OF AN AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENT ON SAMPLES FROM WOOD-POLYMERIC MATERIAL

Abstract: The article discusses the results of lengthy experimental studies of the influence of aggressive media, water, on the elastic moduli and tensile strengths when bending wood samples and presents their exponential functions.

Keywords: strength, bending, wood, polymer, aggressive environment.

 

StepanovaYu.N., Belousova O.A. METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING THE FINANCIAL STATE OF INNOVATIVE-ACTIVE ORGANIZATIONS IN FORESTRY

Abstract: in the str?ategy of deve?lopment of t?he forest co?mplex of t?he Russian Fede?ration unt?il 2030, a?long with t?he achieve?ment of sust?ainable fo?rest manage?ment laid dow?n the tasks o?f innovatio?n and effect?ive develop?ment, use, p?rotection, p?rotection a?nd reproduct?ion of forests, to e?nsure rapid g?rowth of t?he forestry secto?r to benef?it social a?nd environ?mental secu?rity of the cou?ntry.

Taking into accou?nt the inte?rnational e?xperience, t?he basic i?nnovative d?irections o?f developme?nt of the Russ?ian forest secto?r needs to focus o?n the processes o?f manufactu?ring innov?ation in c?reating new p?roducts, suc?h as advanced b?iofuels, i?nnovative m?aterials used i?n modern co?nstruction, a?nd the app?lication o?f new methods o?f manageme?nt of structu?ral units o?f modern fo?rest comple?x in the fo?rm of new fo?rms of bus?iness orga?nization t?hat fosters i?nnovative deve?lopment of t?he forest co?mplex [8].

Based on t?he economic esse?nce of innov?ation, the co?ndition fo?r the imple?mentation o?f innovative act?ivity by a?n economic e?ntity shou?ld be the p?resence of suc?h a structu?re that wi?ll form the at?mosphere o?f entrepre?neurship a?nd the percept?ion of new oppo?rtunities a?nd measures to t?ransform t?he idea into a new a?nd improved p?roduct (se?rvice), a new approach to t?he organization o?f manageme?nt [8].

As a conseque?nce, the drive?r factor i?n this situ?ation is t?he develop?ment of in?novative a?nd active o?rganizatio?ns in the fo?rest comple?x, the esse?nce of whic?h is the use o?f scientif?ic, technic?al, intellectu?al potenti?al in orde?r to obtai?n a new product, tec?hnology, se?rvices.

Currently, i?n Russia, t?he resources t?hat are invested i?n the innov?ation of t?he forest co?mplex can not provide h?im a breakt?hrough in i?nnovative deve?lopment. T?he reason is t?hat the fi?nancial suppo?rt of the st?ate is aimed m?ainly at t?he initial p?hase of the cyc?le of innov?ation – at t?he stage o?f R &d and is not b?rought to t?he stage o?f industri?al impleme?ntation.

In connect?ion with t?he above, t?he article p?resents the met?hodology a?nd practic?al recomme?ndations re?lated to t?he effective syste?m of financ?ing of innov?ative and act?ive organi?zations of t?he forest co?mplex.

Keywords: innovation, i?nnovation-?active org?anization, fo?rest comple?x, financi?al conditio?n.

 

Stepanova Yu.N., Wolk O.D. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY AS A MOTIVATOR FOR INVESTMENT IN INNOVATION

Abstract: The creative act?ivity of m?an presupposes o?nly the nove?lty of the resu?lts of suc?h activity, w?hile the i?ntellectua?l activity re?flects the act?ivity carr?ied out wit?h the help o?f rational, log?ical conclus?ions. As a conseque?nce, human inte?llectual act?ivity sign?ificantly a?ffects the deve?lopment of t?he sphere w?here it is m?anifested. I?ntellectua?l activity is t?he mental wo?rk of a pe?rson, culm?inating in the creatio?n of a new, c?reatively i?ndependent resu?lt (RID).

The issues o?f securing t?he develope?r's rights to t?he results o?f his work a?nd assessi?ng their m?arket value, i?n the case o?f searching fo?r a potent?ial investo?r, become re?levant. And if in the Russ?ian Federat?ion the co?nsolidatio?n of rights to R?ID is regu?lated by t?he legislat?ive framewo?rk, the Civ?il Code of t?he Russian Fede?ration, the p?rocess of dete?rmining the v?alue of exc?lusive (prope?rty) rights to R?ID in monet?ary terms, o?r the evalu?ation of i?ntellectua?l property re?mains a rat?her comple?x issue fo?r a number o?f economic e?ntities.

In today's re?ality, the deve?lopment of i?nnovation p?rocesses is also di?rectly cor?related with the assess?ment of the R?ID, which is due to t?he need to p?redict the eco?nomic effect o?f the imple?mentation o?f the plan?ned innovat?ion strateg?ies and projects.

Thus, this a?rticle prese?nts an assess?ment of the i?nnovative pote?ntial of RID, including i?ndicators o?f resource e?ndowment, co?mpetitiveness a?nd risk aspects.

Keywords: results of i?ntellectua?l activity, i?nnovations, i?nvestments, i?ntangible assets, asset v?aluation.

 

Stepanova Yu.N., Isakova E.I. METHODOLOGY OF RECOUPMENT OF COSTS OF INNOVATION POTENTIAL RESOURCES

Abstract: In modern conditions of the sanctions, a significant part of business entities experiences significant difficulties in carrying out their activities. This is expressed in a forced decrease in production volumes, lack of financial resources to ensure functioning, loss of product competitiveness, lower quality, constant failures of production processes, etc., which ultimately negatively affects the efficiency of the business entity and its financial condition.
To overcome the current situation, business entities need to apply new management methods related to the introduction of innovative technologies in all areas of activity. Subjects with sufficient innovative potential are able to timely protect their businesses from possible threats from the external environment. They have significant competitive and advantages and can adapt to the changing economic conditions.
However, at present, the key to the effectiveness of innovation is not only the presence of desire, but also the real ability of an economic entity to implement innovations. In this regard, an important economic category is the innovative potential of a business entity.
In this article, an assessment of the use of resources and the innovative potential of an economic entity is presented. Resource potential certainly depends on the possibilities for each of its components, the way and the interrelations of possibilities in the production system, its structure, structure and parameters of the produced products, and the potential opportunities for each of the components of the resource potential are nothing but the unused resources of the economic entity.

Кеуwоrds: innоvаtiоns, i?nnоvаtivе роtе?ntiаl, соsts, i?nnоvаtivе rеsо?urсеs.

 

Tolstykh V.A., Potapov E.A., Mikhina E.A. FORMATION OF FOREST RECLAMATION COMPLEXES IN THE KURSK REGION OF THE KURSK REGION

Abstract: In forest-agrarian landscapes, systems of protective stands are formed taking into account zonal attributes. The use of fast-growing species for forest reclamation in the conditions of the Kursk region is a common practice. Pure crops from balsamic, pyramidal, poplar, hanging birch 7.5-12.0 m wide at the age of 17-18 are represented by a blown, openwork-blown and openwork structure with a high forestry-reclamation estimate. With the joint growth of balsamic poplar with birch sagging at the age of 17 years, the birch sagging in the composition occupies 2.3 units. Poplar is superior in biometric growth indicators to birch by 3.7-14.6%. Fast-growing breeds are graded according to class Ia boniteta. Artificial linear shelterbelts, changing the microclimate in the protected areas of the fields, contribute to increasing the biological yield of crops. Among the forest belts of the blown structure, the yield increase for winter wheat is 5.4 c/ ha (17.9%), from the influence of plantings of the openwork structure, the increase is 4.2 c/ha (14.3%), of dense construction - 3.1 c/ha (10.5%). The range of active reclamation influence extends up to 12-15H (heights) of the stands. The introduction of fast-growing rocks in protective stands allows you to more fully obtain the reclamation effect in time and on the protected area.

Keywords: forest stripes, growth, reclamation effect, crop.

 

Tarasova E.V., Zelikov V.A., Denisov G.A. MONITORING ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION BY VEHICLE TRANSPORT

Abstract: Monitoring of the environmental situation in Voronezh as a result of the activities of road transport and industrial enterprises is considered. An analysis was made of the ecological state of atmospheric air in the Voronezh region and a system for observing the state of atmospheric air was considered.

Keywords: road transport, pollutants, observing system, monitoring, mass emissions, concentration.

 

Tolbina I.A., Treschevskaya S.V., Treschevskaya E.I. THE USE OF COMMON PINE FOR AFFORESTATION OF DISTURBED LANDS OF THE VORONEZH MINE

Abstract: The mining industry is the foundation of our country's economy. However, its activity leads to disruption of all components of the landscape. Exogenous processes such as erosion and deflation cause great damage to disturbed lands. Their influence extends to the surrounding area, almost 10 times the area of disturbed land. It is possible to reduce the negative impact on the environment with the help of forest reclamation, which is the cheapest and most affordable way. With the help of reclamation, it is possible to restore the lost state of natural landscapes. The effectiveness of remediation depends largely on the correct selection of the range of trees and shrubs. The structure and rate of formation of new biogeocenoses depend on them. Large areas of disturbed land are located in the Central Federal district, including the Voronezh region. Here sand, chalk, clay were and are mined in the open way. Such works were carried out by the Voronezh mine management. Semiluksky forestry was engaged in restoration of the disturbed lands in 70-80 years of the last century. Scots pine is one of the main tree species used in forest reclamation of technogenic landscapes. Culture pine trees are planted on the piles of stacked rocks of different overburden: sand, sand-chalk mixtures, etc. On sandy-chalky mixtures of pine does not require prior improve forest conditions and grows I-II classes of bonitet. Such plantings practically do not differ from plantings on zonal soils.

Keywords: technogenic landscape, dump, sand-chalk mixture, Pinus Silvestris.

 

Telegin O.O., Moiseeva E.V.  LICHENINDICATION AS A WAY TO MONITOR THE STATUS OF RECREATIONAL URBAN AREAS (FOR EXAMPLE, VORONEZH)

Abstract: In recent decades, there has been a sharp deterioration in the environmental situation in cities, which is associated with an increase in anthropogenic pressure. Such negative changes are reflected in the change in all components of the urban environment, and, of course, on the quality of atmospheric air. In this regard, the importance of recreational urban areas, which primarily include parks and squares, is growing sharply. Wood plantings in such areas contribute to an increase in oxygen concentration in the air, trapping dust and other harmful components. The methods of the urban environment monitoring system allow an assessment of its condition, both in general and in individual components. Such methods include lichenoindication methods, which are based on the use of lichens to assess the integral impact of adverse environmental factors on ecosystems. Lichens react very strongly to the microclimatic conditions in which they grow and to the composition of the air, which determines their species diversity and development. An analysis of the species composition, the degree of projective cover with lichens, and the calculation of the OCA index allows us to say that the optimal ecological situation is in the Voronezh central region parka. In the areas where the Komsomolsky park, Koltsovsky and Petrovsky squares are located, the most difficult environmental situation is observed, which is probably associated with a high anthropogenic load (a large number of motor vehicles). In the area of ​​the Tanais park, the environmental situation is somewhat better.

Keywords: lichenoindication, air environment, relative purity of the atmosphere.

 

Khoroshev A.S.  FOREST CULTURES OF SIBERIAN CEDAR PINE IN THE SIERPOVO FORESTRY OF THE TAMBOV REGION

Abstract: This article presents the experience of introduction of Siberian cedar pine in the North of Tambov region lasting 55 years. Forest crops were laid in 1964 on an area of 0.8 hectares and in 1965 on an area of 1.5 hectares. Diameters and heights of 20 trees selectively with different area of placement were measured, dependence of growth and development of cedar pines on density of growth was established. Autochthonous offspring of Siberian pine of different ages were found in adjacent areas and neighborhoods, which allows us to judge the successful acclimatization of trees. In the autumn of 2019, care activities are planned on the plots due to the strong density and clutter, there are trees of 5 and 6 categories of sanitary condition.

Keywords:Tambov oblast, introduction, Siberian pine, the aborigines, the area of the accommodation, forest of culture.

 

Kharchenko N.N., Mikhina V.V.  THE ROLE OF PROTECTIVE STANDS IN IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF LANDSCAPES

Abstract: Artificial linear plantations alter the environmental conditions in landscapes. During the growing season, microbiological activity is noted in the surface layer of soil. In the strip zones of 25H (heights) of stands, among the reclamation objects of wind-blown type, the cellulose-destructive activity is higher by 3.1-6.9% compared with unprotected landscape areas (35-40H). On the soil cover, among plantations of openwork type, microbiological activity is 34.8-36.8%. Among plantations of dense type, microbiological activity is 32.6-33.8%. The difference between zones of influence and control points (35-40H) is 0.9-4.4%. A redistribution of nitrates occurs in the soil cover, which depends on the characteristics of the plantations that have a meliorative effect. In landscapes among biologically protective objects in the zone 0-30H of wind-blown structure the nitrifying activity is 46.4-46.9 mg / kg, in the openwork structure is 42.1-42.9 mg / kg, in the dense structure 36.4- 36.8 mg / kg. Plantations of wind-blown and openwork types have the greatest efficiency. They contribute to an increase in nitrifying activity of 6.0-10.3 mg / kg of soil.

Keywords: ecological reclamation role, protective plantings, soil activity.

 

Tsaralunga A.V., Tsaralunga V.V., Korotkaia A.V. THE OCCURRENCE OF SIGNS OF PATHOLOGY ON THE QUERCUS ROBUR

Abstract: Based on the analysis of forest pathological studies databases of Voronezh region coppice oak associations and field studies of the authors in the upland oak forest of the VSUFT scientific-experimental forestry, the list and occurrence of pathological signs on the Quercus Pedunculata were revealed. In the areas represented mainly by upland coppice oak forests of ripening and ripe age, 35% have butt caves. In second place in terms of occurrence were trees in which some of the main branches died out (from 6.7% to 30.6%). In third place is the tree trunk shape pathology (from 1.5 to 15.5). It was determined that the set of pathological signs used to assess the condition of oak trees requires clarification, additions and differentiation; the proportion of some pathological signs (and corresponding pathologies) varies significantly depending on the nature of the plantation, which requires mandatory consideration of all pathological signs and their combination when assessing the state of the stand; when fixing pathological signs, their qualitative and quantitative characteristics are necessary, since the objectivity of assessing the state of the tree and the entire stand essentially depends on this.

Keywords: Forest pathology, pathological signs, forest pathological studies, sanitary measures, Quercus Pedunculata.

 

Yudina A.S., Kochergina M.V. OPTIMIZATION OF THE GREENING SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE VORONEZH REGION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF MKOU "VERKHNETISHANSKAYA SCHOOL NAMED AFTER V. V. FUFAEV»)

Abstract: The work is devoted to the problems of greening general education schools of the Voronezh region. Green plantations in such facilities perform environmental functions and play an important aesthetic role. With a properly selected assortment and competent placement of plants, the perception of the object as a whole is improved. Measures to optimize plantations make it possible to create a more favorable environment in school areas to maintain the physical and moral development of students, create conditions for classes and rest of schoolchildren and work activities of teachers. The work presents the results of the study of the assortment of plants growing in the territory of Vernetishanskaya SOH named after V. A. Fufayev. A complete inventory of plants was carried out, life forms, their condition and systematic position were determined. Recommendations for the preservation of the stability of plantations are presented. The school 's greening system has been shown to be dominated by wood species, and there is an acute shortage of shrubs. It is proposed to plant ornamental shrubs with pronounced phytonic properties and prolonged flowering period - species of genera Spiraea L., Hydrangea L, Forsythia L. Recommended plants are safe in contact with skin and do not cause allergic reactions. In addition, they have high resistance to unfavourable environmental factors, are quite winter-resistant and durable in the conditions of the Voronezh region.

Keywords: school, greening, range of plants, ornamental shrubs, phytoncides.