Periodical printed edition (journal)
Registration certificate PI No. FS 77-79357 dated 16.10.2020 (previously PI No. FS 77 - 66379 dated 14.07.2016 and PI No. FS 77-54416 dated 10.06.2013)
Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies Named after G.F. Morozov
MODERN FORESTRY TECHNOLOGIES AND FOREST EXPLOITATION
Abramov V.V., Troyanov I.N., Bukhtoyarov L.D. IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES OF WORK OF CHAINSAWS ON UNSAFE FELLING OF THE FOREST
Abstract: The article presents a new comprehensive three-level concept for evaluating design decisions for performing processing operations on incomplete logging, which is distinguished by the ability to simultaneously predict energy costs, technical and economic results, and forestry and environmental consequences for the forest environment. To implement this concept, a structure of a three-level automated system for increasing the efficiency of working with chainsaws on incomplete cutting was proposed by substantiating the optimal technology and organization of work, a set of gasoline-powered tools, a method and parameters for developing apiaries. At the first level, to substantiate the optimal set of gasoline-powered tools, a mathematical model of the process of performing butt cuts for the determination of specific energy costs is proposed. At the second level, to substantiate the optimal technology and labor organization, simulation models of the process of performing processing operations to determine the specific reduced energy costs are proposed. At the third level, in order to justify the optimal method and parameters for apiary development, a generalized criterion is used to assess the efficiency of processing operations taking into account direct production costs, forestry damage, as well as damage to the undergrowth. For each indicated level of tasks to be solved, a mathematical apparatus, information and software recommended for use at logging enterprises was developed. Currently, it has been successfully implemented in the Moscow and Tambov regions. According to the results of the implementation, there is a decrease in the performance of processing operations: specific and specific reduced energy costs (from 4 to 9%); total direct costs (from 3 to 7%); as well as forestry and environmental damage (from 5 to 11%).
Keywords: chainsaws, incomplete logging, cutting operations, apiary development methods.
Aksenov A.A., MalyukovS.V., Solncev A.V. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPOSITIONAL MODIFIER FOR MODIFICATION OF WOOD BY SPECIFIED PROPERTIES
Abstract: In recent years, the production of modified wood has been actively developing abroad. This article discusses the composition of a complex modifier for modified wood, which will improve the performance of friction units with bearings made of modified wood by reducing intermolecular interactions between contacting bodies, increase dimensional stability and hardness of modified wood, and will also comply with environmental requirements. The density of the liquid components of the impregnating compositions was determined. The number of components necessary for the preparation of impregnating compositions was calculated. The impregnation technology is as follows: the impregnating composition is poured into a tin can, heated on an electric stove to 120 0C. Prepared (dried, weighed, measured on three sides and marked) samples of 15 pieces in each impregnating composition are immersed in a hot impregnating solution. Tin cans with samples are placed in a pre-heated autoclave, closed, and brought to a pressure of 40 atm. At this pressure, the samples are kept for 5 minutes. Then the pressure is brought to atmospheric pressure, the samples are removed, dried with filter paper and placed in a ассаators for cooling to a temperature of 20 ± 2 0С. After cooling, the samples are weighed on an analytical balance to the nearest 0.002 g and the three sides of the sample are measured with a caliper. The quality of impregnation of the samples was determined. Water absorption, moisture absorption, linear swelling of the samples of impregnated wood were determined.
Keywords: modified wood, impregnating composition, test sample, impregnation process, water absorption of the sample.
Bartenev I.M., Petkov A.F., Popov M.A. ANALYSIS OF WORKING PROCESSES OF ROTORS-THROWERS OF FOREST-FIRE SOIL METERS-STRIP-LAYING MACHINES
Abstract: The main requirements for carrying out preventive and forest fire works are revealed. It is established that the main drawback of the used soil-sweeping machines is the small amount of soil supplied, its distribution over a large area by a small layer. This is ineffective when extinguishing a fire. Also a disadvantage is the low performance due to the low speed of the machine (up to 2 km / h). The main ways to improve the efficiency of working processes of forest fire engines and tools are considered. The working processes of new designs of soil-sweeping machines with preliminary preparation of the soil shaft before the thrower cutters are considered. Milling of the fed soil is excluded from the working process of the blade of the thrower cutter. This function is performed by spherical disks mounted on the front. In addition, the disks form a soil shaft for subsequent throwing by the rotor. But this innovation did not improve performance. Fire extinguishing is ineffective due to the strong dispersion of the soil in a thin layer, as well as the loss of volume of the ejected soil when dust is formed. The proposed method of extinguishing a low-level fire involves the formation of a shaft of loosened soil above the ground and throwing it into the fire zone. In the process, a layer of soil is cut off, then raised and divided into separate layers. At the same time, moving soil layers have different trajectories and different speeds when entering the zone of fire movement. At the same time, it is covered with a certain layer of soil, which is necessary for extinguishing a ground forest fire at a high speed.(patent no. 2706040).
Keywords: forest fire, soil-laying machine, soil, rotor-thrower.
Bubnov S.S., Malyukov S.V., Aksenov A.A. OVERVIEW OF DESIGNS OF TREE-PLANTING MACHINE FOR OPEN AREAS AND CLEARED FELLING
Abstract: Reforestation is the main, priority task of the modern forest complex. Natural forest regeneration has long been considered a priority. Natural regeneration, as a way of reforestation, has a number of significant drawbacks. Firstly, the natural regeneration of forests in burned areas and deforestation does not occur immediately after deforestation, but over a fairly long time ̶ reforestation period, during which various unfavorable processes ̶ soil erosion, sodding develop on an unforested area. Secondly, natural renewal quite often leads to a change of species, i.e. desired valuable breeds do not grow. As a result, the territory is overgrown with minor soft-leaved species that have low economic value. Mechanized landing, i.e. artificial reforestation, also has a number of disadvantages. Therefore, planting operations carried out under various conditions are the most labor-intensive and responsible operations. The technological process of planting seedlings and seedlings of various tree species with both open and closed root systems is presented. The analysis of existing designs of forest planting machines for open areas, fires and clearings is carried out. Deficiencies were identified that affect the quality of the planting process and reduce the survival rate of planted seedlings and seedlings.
Keywords: tree-planting machine, reforestation, seedlings, opener.
Bukhtoyarov L.D., Beznosko J.V., Bazula I.A., Popov A.N. SCAN DETACHED TREES USING 3D SENSE AND THEIR RECONSTRUCTION IN CAD
Abstract: Harvesters are state-of-the-art high-performance forestry machines that carry out a series of continuous operations, such as felling, pruning, and so on. During the alignment process of the harvester head to capture the trunk, the operator requires a large number of observations, judgments and multiple operations, which leads to loss of time and fuel. In order to increase operational efficiency and reduce operating costs, before cutting a tree, it is advisable to obtain a scan in the form of a point cloud. We suggest using a 3D Sense laser scanner for this, which is a non-contact measuring system.
The distance between the scanner and the tree is determined by the travel time of the laser light pulse: a pulsed laser beam is emitted and reflected if it encounters an object. Based on these measurements, it is possible to optimize tree felling and increase the automation of harvesters, which will lead to increased efficiency in the use of various resources However, the natural environment poses problems for any computer read task. This article presents the results of scanning single-standing trees surrounded by foliage and branches.
Keywords: Harvester, laser measurements, 3d scan.
Gribanov A.A. IMPROVEMENT OF AUTOMATION SYSTEMS OF THE PROCESS BONDING LUMBER FOR THE LENGTH
Abstract: Resource conservation and reuse of wood processing waste in a modern market economy is of paramount importance. The technologies and technical equipment considered in the article are devoted to the process of splicing of short wood sections of lumber. The above stages of processing wood waste require optimally designed cutting cards for sawing raw materials in order to obtain the greatest yield of edged sawn timber. The studies of the method of manual cutting of wood defects considered in the article make it possible to determine the time spent on processing furniture blanks sent for subsequent splicing. Significant time is spent on inspection of lumber manually from four sides. The proposed optical method of wood flaw detection allows you to take into account the defects of the workpieces on four sides with the subsequent process of cutting them on the milling unit and automatic gluing along the length. It is proposed to use illuminated cameras, which are installed on four sides of the conveyor, as scanning elements. Photographs from the detectors are combined into a single three-dimensional map of the workpiece using special software and then transmitted in the form of control actions on the end face of the defect cutting line. Waste is automatically removed to the hopper by special pushing machines.
Keywords: modeling, splicing, resource saving, management.
Golev A.D., Ivannikov V.A., Buhtoyarov V.N. NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR PRESOWING TREATMENT AND SEEDING OF COMMON PINE SEEDS IN THE NURSERY
Abstract: When reforestation is cut down for various needs of our country coniferous forests significantly reduced their quality, mainly due to the fact that they are poorly renewed. One of the reasons for this is the low quality of seed material, harvested usually not from the testes and plus trees, but from trees with low genetic characteristics of trees.
In the resulting seed mix to contain different fractions of seeds differing in seed quality. When sowing such heterogeneous seeds in a forest nursery at the end of the growing season, a significant part of the grown seedlings (up to 30 %) goes to marriage, because they do not meet the requirements of the standard. This is because, contained in the total mass of small seeds do not have the growth potential that large, and when they grow together, seedlings grown from small seeds do not meet the requirements of the standard, because in the process of growth and development are oppressed by larger seedlings.
The new technology for sizing pine seeds allows you to completely separate the fractions of small seeds.
Sowing small seeds separately from large ones at the optimal depth of planting, you can create conditions for their effective growth and development, as well as provide additional planting material that meets the requirements of the standard.
Keywords: forest seed mix, seed sizing, seed fractions, planting depth, planting material.
Evsikova N.Yu., Lisitsyn V.I., Terekhina I.V. STOCHASTIC ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS IN FORESTS
Abstract: When forecasting forest fires, particular importance is attached to the analysis of air temperature changes. Along with data such as precipitation and wind speed, temperature is a basic parameter for determining the drying rate of combustible materials and determining the parameters of the threat of fires (Nesterov index). At the same time, little importance is attached to studies of the patterns of changes in the probability distribution of the temperature fluctuations magnitude during the year. Temperature studies are descriptive, as a rule, estimates diverge, and the boundaries of the given intervals are blurred. The paper has analyzed the nature of the probability distribution of daily temperature fluctuations in the period from January to May. The analysis is based on known and regularly measured data. The results of the analysis of the data of measurements of the temperature of the day and evening showed that the probability distribution can be modeled by the Gaussian function with a sufficient degree of certainty. The parameters of Gaussian function characterize the features of the processes stimulated by temperature changes in the trunks of woody plants. In addition, it turned out that the most likely value of fluctuations is steadily increasing from January to March. It is known that in March intense sap flow occurs in the absence of transpiration currents. Therefore, we can confidently assume that at this time the upward currents in the tree trunks are thermally stimulated.
Keywords: temperature fluctuations, Gaussian function, formalized modeling, natural systems, stochastic models.
Isakov I.Yu. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STATE AND PRESERVATION OF TEST CULTURES BIRCH THAT DIFFER BY AUTO- AND ALLOGAMY
Abstract: The article provides data on the need for leading countries to move to building bioeconomics, the role of the forest sector and the productivity of trees for this purpose, the characteristics of the birch gene pool available at the objects of a single Genetic and Selection Complex in the Central black earth Region of the Russian Federation, and the overcoming of non-crossing in fast-growing tree species. The characteristic of the birch tree as a convenient model object for genetic, selection, morphological, and biochemical research is given. The safety and productivity characteristics in different periods of ontogenesis in birch species and hybrids were studied, and a selection inventory of test birch crops was carried out. The General scheme of the selection process used for obtaining valuable genotypes for their mass reproduction, methods of selfing and hybridization of birch trees, and a sequence diagram of steps for obtaining adaptive planting material of fast growing woody plants (ante vitro, in vitro, ex vitro), the importance of each stage in the process. In conclusion, conclusions are given based on the results of the study, among which there are indications of the species specifics of the studied birches, both local and introduced. We also identified drought-resistant and, consequently, promising birch families of different genetic origin for reforestation.
Keywords: downy birch, silver birch, hybridization, drought tolerance, test cultures.
Kamalova N.S., Matveev N.N., Ivannikov S.M. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AT ANALYSIS OF THE WOOD PLANTS STATE
Abstract: The state of woody plants determines the viability of forests and environmental safety in urban environments largely. Therefore, scientific studies of the tree response as a complex biosystem on environmental factors changes are especially relevant due to the growing threat of environmental disasters (environmental pollution, active felling, etc.). Many modern methods for assessing the state of such complex macromolecular systems are verbal in nature due to the lack of non-destructive testing methods with controlled accuracy. The shortage of experimental measurements retards the development of modeling the state of trees and, consequently, the development of methods for predicting their response on the influence of external factors. The development of digital technology can change the current state of affairs in this sphere. In the report, within the framework of a systematic approach, the possibility of using digital technologies at analyzing the response of the state of woody plants on environmental factors changes has analyzed. The results of studying the flow of salt solutions in the xylem of tree trunks are presented to solve the problem. Based on experimental data, models are proposed that can become the basis of calculation systems for analyzing the state parameters of woody plants and predicting the occurrence of environmental disasters.
Keywords: xylem currents, transpiration current, digital processing, digital signal, models of processes in natural systems.
Kochergina M.V., Tsaregorodtsev A.V. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND CONDITION OF STREET PLANTINGS OF THE CITY OF VORONEZH
Abstract: The work is devoted to the problems of greening the streets of the city of Voronezh. Trees and shrubs are designed to aesthetically transform the monotony of streets and roads, provide shading of sidewalks, protect passers-by and surrounding areas from dust, gases and noise from the roadway. At the same time, these plantations are experiencing the maximum pressure of vehicles and other anthropogenic factors. The ability of plantings to perform the most important ecological functions directly depends on their condition, which is greatly influenced by a set of environmental factors. With a properly selected assortment and proper placement of plants, the plantings ' resistance to biotic and anthropogenic factors increases, and the perception of the city as a whole improves. The paper presents the results of studying the range of plants growing along the main streets of the city of Voronezh. A complete inventory of plants was carried out, life forms, taxational indicators of trees and shrubs, their condition and systematic position were determined. The main types of plantings used in street gardening in the city of Voronezh are identified. It is shown that the rock composition of plantings is represented by 51 species that belong to 18 families. Deciduous tree species dominate the plantings, and shrubs and lianas are less common. In this case, the participation of coniferous plants is less than 1%. The dominant species in the plantings are pyramidal poplar, squat elm and hanging birch. The indicators of the qualitative state of these breeds are determined, the complex of pests and diseases is considered, and recommendations for optimizing street gardening in the city of Voronezh are presented.
Keywords: tree species, shrubs, street plantings, species diversity, inventory, status categories.
Kulakova E.N., Chernodubov A.I. PRODUCTIVITY OF RED OAK CULTURES OF KURDZHIP DISTRICT FORESTRY OF THE REPUBLIC OF ADYGEA
Abstract: The results of a study of red oak crops located on the territory of the Kurdzhip precinct forestry of the Republic of Adygea (western part of the North Caucasus) are presented. The characteristic of red oak, as a tree species, is less demanding on soil conditions compared to other forest-forming species and has high decorative properties, due to which it is used alone for planting in open areas, as a hedge along roads, individual tracts in parks, squares in the form of oak groves. It goes well both in pure stands and in combination with pine, beech, hornbeam, elm, ash, linden, mountain ash, maple. It is able to grow on sandy loam and loamy podzolic soils without stagnant moisture, mainly along river banks. It grows poorly on calcareous and moist soils. Due to its well-developed root system, wood is resistant to wind. Red oak is characterized by good resistance to damage by entomo - and phyto pests [1, 5]. The paper analyzes the taxation indicators of red oak and related species crops, and plots of growth progress along the height and diameter of the crops are constructed. The growth and productivity advantage of the oak over red oak has been established.
Keywords: forest cultures, red oak, productivity, taxation indicators, forest type, growth rate.
Levin S.V., Chernodubov A.I. ASPECTS OF THE GROWTH OF CRIMEAN PINE INTRODUCED IN HERB-GRASS AND MIXED-GRASS STEPPE ZONE OF VOLGA-DON DISTRICT OF THE SOUTH OF THE RUSSIAN PLAIN
Abstract: Crimean pine (Pinus nigra subsp.pallasiana Lamb.) better than other introduced tree species fits the environmental conditions of the studied region, as it is highly resistant to various pathologies and can be used to form complex (multilayered) uneven-aged multispecies stands. The significant age of the studied stands (110 and 118 years old) provides a good indication of this fact, as well as allows us to make a judgement on the features of growth and development of Crimean pine mixed with Scots pine. It should be noted that when Crimean pine is mixed with Scots pine its average trunk volume is 2.5 times higher than that of pure Crimean pine stands. Research suggests that the best plant growth pattern for the steppe conditions is when Crimean pine strips are grown between the Scots pine strips. The best plant spacing is 2x1 m and at least 2 Crimean pine rows should be spaced between Scots pine rows. Such a pattern best suits the В2 site type according to Pogrebnyak’s classification which corresponds to mesophytic mixed forests.
Keywords: Crimean pine; Scots pine; introduction; adaptation; biometric characteristics; annosum root rot.
Lysych M.N. VIRTUAL STAND FOR SIMULATION OF DYNAMIC STABILITY OF A MACHINE-TRACTOR UNIT
Abstract: The questions of studying the dynamic stability of machine-tractor unit by the methods of multibody dynamics (MBD) are considered. To create a simulation model, the virtual modeling method was used in the CAD SolidWorks and the CAE application SolidWorks Motion. As an object of modeling and research, an machine-tractor unit based on the MTZ-82.1 tractor was selected. A 3D model of a tractor equipped with front and rear mounted devices was created. At the same time, all the main structural elements and their key geometric and mass-inertial parameters were saved. All the stationary elements of the tractor were reduced and excluded from the mass-inertial calculations. To replace them, we used a ball equal to them in weight from a user material of increased density. By adjusting the position of the ball, the center of mass of the simplified model was brought to the real operational center of mass of the tractor. This simplification allows you to perform simulation with minimal computer load. The tractor was aggregated with front and rear mounted modular implements. A test track was simulated, consisting of four test sections with immovable obstacles oriented perpendicular to the direction of movement of the tractor. The parameters of the interaction of the contact pair of the support surface – wheels are given. The process of simulation of the dynamic stability of the machine-tractor unit on a virtual stand with the control of the complex of the studied parameters is demonstrated.
Keywords: machine-tractor unit, 3D-CAD, multi-body dynamics, dynamic stability, virtual stand.
Lysych M.N. RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC STABILITY OF THE MACHINE-TRACTOR UNIT ON THE VIRTUAL STAND
Abstract: The questions of studying the dynamic stability of machine-tractor unit by the methods of multi-body dynamics (MBD) are considered. The study used a virtual stand created in CAD SolidWorks and CAE application SolidWorks Motion. It simulated the movement of the machine-tractor unit on the basis of the MTZ-82.1 tractor equipped with mounted modular implements. The motion surface has four different types of obstacles located in series in separate sections. To analyze the stages of the machine-tractor unit movement, we used the parameter of the lift height of the geometric center of each of the wheels above the supporting surface and the fact of the unit rollover. He showed that overcoming a single linear, single sequential and group linear obstacles at a speed of 3.22 m/s occurs without loss of stability. Only when overcoming a group sequential obstacle, significant fluctuations in the tractor frame are observed, however, due to the balancing suspension of the front wheels, they do not always lead to the rollover of the unit. In the future, using the developed virtual stand, it is possible to conduct studies of the dynamic stability of various configurations of the machine-tractor unit. In addition to the MTZ 82.1 tractor, models of other tractors can be used. It is also possible to change the geometry of obstacles, the angles of inclination of the supporting surface, speed mode, contact parameters, etc.
Keywords: machine-tractor unit, 3D-CAD, CAE, multi-body dynamics, obstacles, virtual experiment, analysis.
Malinina T.A., Novikov V.A., Molokanova M.S. HYDROPONICS AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO GROWING PLANTING MATERIAL
Abstract: Hydroponics is a modern way of growing plants in special solutions. Using this method, plants dispense with soil, are in the substrate, which serves as a support for the root system and receive the necessary nutrients from the solution. It for each plant, depending on the species, is selected individually. The hydroponic method is of two types: open systems and closed. Most industrial plants are simple open systems. Plants are grown on a mineral wool slab; the nutrient solution circulates several times a day, according to the ambient temperature, and then after each watering 25-30% of the nutrient solution is discharged into the ground. This is to prevent the deposition of salts on the substrate.There are also closed systems where the nutrient solution circulates from the tank to the plants and back to the tank. In this case, all the consumed water is absorbed and evaporated by the plant, thereby increasing the efficiency of water consumption. In addition, the nutrient solution does not come into contact with the soil and does not contaminate the soil, and unwanted nutrients do not enter the groundwater. System closure solves the problem of water loss. Peppermint culture was grown using a closed type of hydroponic system. Passiflora seeds were grown using mineral wool.
Keywords: hydroponics, plants, light, water, soil substrate.
Malyukov S.V., Knyazev A.V., Aksenov A.A. RESEARCH OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE GRATED INSTALLATION
Abstract: Annual harvesting of a large number of forest seeds allows for reforestation on the territory of the Russian Federation. Moreover, more than 70% falls on the seeds of coniferous trees. In order to increase their sowing quality and reduce losses, the seeds are dehumidified, cleaned, sorted by density and size, stratification, as well as other technological operations. The use of refined seeds during reforestation allows increasing the productivity of sowing units, improving the quality of seed placement, reducing the volume of seed bins, which leads to a decrease in the metal consumption of sewing machines as a whole. For experimental studies, special sieves were made: plastic with chamfered, plastic with standard holes and plastic with rounded edges. The dependences of the completeness of separation of the procode fraction ε were determined for various combinations of the angle of inclination α and the rotation frequency of the working body ω for various seed thicknesses. The angle of inclination of the working body α was changed from 4 ° to 12 °, in increments of 2 °, rotation frequency ω from 400 min--to 1200 min-¹, in increments of 200 min-¹. The size gap was set taking into account the dimensional characteristics of existing sieves with rectangular holes and was 0.2 mm. Studies were conducted on the seeds of common pine.
Keywords: sorting sieve, common pine seeds, rotational speed of the working body.
Manukovsky A.U., Kurdukov D.P., Korotkov V.A. EXPERIENCE OF APPLICATION OF ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION MODELING TECHNOLOGY
Abstract: This article describes the experience of using elements of information modeling technology. Where the process of forming the information model was controlled by representatives of the Customer service in an organized environment of common data on the Internet server of the design organization. Also in this paper, a description is given of the application of elements of information modeling technology during the Customer’s verification, and the deadlines for completing the work are given, which at the end of the experiment gave a significant increase in productivity. The content of the article contains a description of an effective method of interaction of all participants at the design, construction and operation stages and continues to find application in existing projects, while not reducing the productivity time.
Research in the article, in the case of joint work using elements of information modeling technology, leads to a certain experience, from which it can be concluded that the introduction of information modeling technology in the road industry is expected not only to improve the quality of the project, but also becomes more effective interaction of all participants at the design, construction and operation stage. The content of the article gives an idea that in fact, the information model of the project is an analog of a paper project. Also, the article discusses the issue of reducing the time of production of design works and works on making changes to the project documentation. This article will be useful for design specialists at the development stage, as well as the working stage.
Keywords: highway, general data environment, project information model, information modeling technology.
Mikhin V.I., Mikhina E.A. GROWTH OF TREE SPECIES IN PROTECTIVE FOREST PLANTATIONS AND FORMATION OF FOREST AND RECOVERY COMPLEXES IN CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL RUSSIAN FOREST STEPPECONDITIONS OF CENTRAL RUSSIAN FOREST STEPPE
Аннотация: Защитные насаждения в условиях центральной лесостепи Европейской части России создавались в различное время с разнообразным ассортиментом растений. Быстрорастущие породы в составе искусственных линейных насаждений вводятся с момента их формирования. Почвенно-гидрологические услAbstract: Protective forests in the central forest-steppe of the European part of Russia were created at different times with a diverse assortment of plants. Fast-growing tree scpecies in the composition of artificial linear stands are introduced from the moment of their formation. Soil and hydrological conditions are one of the main conditions on which successful growth of tree species depends. The highest biometric growth indicators in middle-aged plantations in height of balsamic poplar are observed on typical chernozem (0,82 m / year), less significant (0,65 m / year) on leached chernozem. The greatest activity in growth is manifested up to the age of 13 - 18 years. The silver birch tree is characterized by a decrease in activity in height growth since the age of 14 - 20 years. The average annual increase to the 30 year period is 0,60 – 0,74 m / year. In the best soil conditions (typical chernozem), growth rates are higher. In forest belts, both fast-growing (poplar, birch) and slow-growing and long-lasting (english oak) tree species have differences in height and diameter growth depending on their placement in the transverse profile. At the age of 33-45 years, a convex profile is formed, where the average height of the central rows is 10,6 – 16,8% more than the marginal ones and the average diameter of the extreme rows exceeds diameter of average rows by 10,1 – 19,9%. In fast-growing tree species, the active reclamation effect of beneficial protective factors is already evident in youth and at the same time, the width of the inter-strip cells on chernozem soils should not exceed 600 - 650 m.
Keywords: protection forests, growth, tree species.
Mikhina E.A., Mikhin V.I. INCREASE IN PRODUCTIVITY OF PRODUCTS OF ARTIFICIAL PHYTOCENOSIS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL FOREST STEPPE OF RUSSIA
Abstract: Land reclamation systems transform the agro-territories of the central forest-steppe of Russia. Protective plantations form various structures of the biocenosis. A special microclimate is created in the protected areas of landscapes. Forest strips in different ways affect the quantitative and qualitative indicators of cereal bio-productivity. The differences are most pronounced in dry vegetation periods. The best in influence and formation of the winter wheat crop are the shelterbelts of the blown and openwork structure. In drought zones (0 -30 N) in dry years, under the influence of blown forest belts, an increase in yield, stem length, spike and weight of 1000 grains is 14.8 - 21.2%, openwork -12.3 - 17.7%, dense - 8.5 - 11.5%, where the effective influence range is 28-30N, 23-26N and 16-18N, respectively. In moderately dry years, shelterbelts of the blown structure increase the yield and its morphometric indicators by 13.1 - 19.6%, openwork - by 10.5 - 15.4%, dense - 8.0 - 10.4%, where the reclamation effect respectively applies to 23 - 26H, 18 - 22H and 14 -17H. Forest strips contribute to a change in the chemical composition of winter wheat grains. In the streak zones there is an increase in gluten content by 0.77-3.12%. Near the protective plantations, an increased moisture content in the soil is noted, which leads to an increase in assimilation processes and, accordingly, to a decrease in the proportion of protein content in the grain. Forest strips should be considered as a natural reserve in the process of increasing the yield of agricultural products.
Keywords: forest shelter belts, planting structure, crop.
Odnoralov G.A., Golyadkina I.V., Tikhonova E.N. TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE CARBON STATE OF VORONEZH UPLAND OAK FOREST
Abstract: to date, the main parameters for assessing the state of the forest are the average age, height, diameter, and completeness of the main forest-forming rocks, expressed in meters, fractions of a meter, or cubic meters. At the same time, on the same test areas, other measurement measures are used for soil research: milligrams, grams, percentages, moles, etc. Naturally, it is impossible to combine these indicators when characterizing the forest environment. To do this, first of all, you should choose a single system of measures, parameters and indicators that combine the biogenic and lithogenic parts of the landscape. Knowing that their interaction is based on energy and mass exchange, we suggest using measures common to both subsystems. The initial indicators for quantifying the oxygen-producing and carbon-depositing functions, as well as the energy accumulated in the primary products of forest ecosystems, are the elements of biological productivity expressed in weight units.
The object of research – Voronezh upland oak forest, with a total area of more than 7 thousand hectares, is the Central organizing element of the entire urban ecosystem of Voronezh. The tree stand is represented by coniferous crops along the left Bank of the floodplain terraces, as well as broad-leaved forest plantations spread on the riverine slopes of the watershed.
Keywords: Voronezh upland oak forest, carbon, forest, biological productivity, biodiversity, biomass, forest soils, urban green spaces, urban ecosystem.
Pozdnyakov A.K., Bartenev I.M. ANALYSIS OF WORKING BODIES OF EQUIPMENT EXTINGUISHING FOREST FIRES
Abstract: Currently, the machines are energy-intensive and inefficient, since the tools are mounted on tractors with a creeper reducer, and the cutters have to work in the conditions of the sodden upper soil layers, which significantly reduces the quality and productivity of the process. This served as an impetus for the creation of new technical tools that would combine the best qualities of plows and milling tools, expand the range of possible applications, but at the same time were devoid of their shortcomings. So there appeared tools with combined working bodies, for example, a strip thrower, developed on the basis of the G.F. Morozova. However, these developments also do not completely solve the problems of the efficiency and quality of preventive and forest fire operations, since the working bodies of milling, although working on a loose soil-soil shaft, are still not protected from roots and stumps, they have a large mass and dimensions due to a combination of two types working bodies in one design. A comparative analysis of technical means and experimental studies of a prototype forest fire soil-throwing machine with a combined working body was carried out.
Keywords: extinguishing, soil-throwing machine, dependence, energy intensity.
Popikov P.I., Kanishchev D.A., Sutolkin A.V. RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF WORKING PROCESSES OF BLOCKLESS LOGGING CAPTURE WITH ENERGY-SAVING HYDRAULIC DRIVE
Abstract: During the movement of the tractor in the unit with the lockless grabs on the roughness of the terrain on the cuttings there are fluctuations that cause jumps of the working fluid in the hydraulic system. This leads to loss of fluid through the gaps and seals of the moving elements of the pump and hydraulic cylinders. For laboratory studies of these phenomena, a laboratory installation was made with the introduction of a pneumatic-hydraulic accumulator of the A5579-0 series into the hydraulic circuit. Laboratory tests were carried out, which showed that the pneumohydraulic battery allows, due to the energy accumulated during operation, to reduce the pressure spikes of the working fluid in the hydraulic system. This reduces the dynamic load on the metal structure of the grip, the hydraulic pump drive and the tractor transmission, as well as increases the volumetric efficiency. After processing waveforms of operating modes to capture with energy saving hydraulic drive using the program STATISTICA was established replications of individual load magnitudes and histograms of pressure without the use of a hydropneumatic accumulator and to its use. It was found that the energy recovery system reduces the pressure spikes of the working fluid during transients by 1.4-1.7 times and allows you to store power within 1.7 ... 2.1 kW.
Keywords: energy-saving hydraulic drive, lockless capture, skidding, pneumatic hydraulic battery, timber.
Popikov P.I., Chetverikova I.V., Chernykh A.S. INCREASING THE TECHNICAL LEVEL OF HYDRAULIC MANIPULATORS OF AUTOCOLLIMATIONAL
Abstract: The main requirements for hydraulic equipment of forest transport machines of manipulator type are revealed. It is established that the main drawback of the used hydraulic drives of manipulators is their increased power and high energy consumption. The main ways of increasing the technical level of hydraulic manipulators of forest transport vehicles are considered. The constructive optimization and improvement of the hydraulic drive mechanism for lifting the boom and turning the column of the manipulator is justified. New designs with the use of hydro-mechanical dampers and energy-saving devices are proposed. As energy-saving devices, it is proposed to use a hydraulic accumulator. The main advantages of the design, which are to increase the reliability and expand the technological capabilities of hydraulic manipulators forest transport machines. The principles of influence on the hydraulic system that reduce the pressure in the piston group and reduce energy consumption are substantiated. The proposed energy-saving hydraulic drive reduces the maximum pressure during braking to 3 MPa. The recovery energy when the column is rotated is 25 % of the energy consumed. The diameter of the dampener's lockable cavities should be 48 mm with the internal diameter of the dampener 65 mm. Minimal changes in the design are achieved to increase the technical level of the hydraulic drive of manipulators of forest transport machines and its competitiveness among existing analogues.
Keywords: hydraulic manipulator, damper, hydraulic actuator, boom, rotary column.
Popov D.A., Rudik M.A., Podzolkov A.S. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE HEAT SHIELDING EFFECT OF OILS ON THE POSSIBILITY OF JAMMING IN THE MOBILE INTERFACES OF TRANSPORT VEHICLES
Abstract: the influence of the heat-shielding effect of oils on the occurrence of wear in mobile interfaces during jamming, characterized by such a defect as a bully and accompanied by the transfer of metal from one friction surface to another, is analyzed. The research was carried out both on the basis of theoretical calculations based on the thermodynamic theory of friction, and empirical tests using the developed device for simulating a temperature flash on a stationary friction contact and subsequent observation of the propagation of the heat flow according to the indications of thermocouples.
On the basis of theoretical assumptions, and the results of the research, the hypothesis that the heat energy released as the result of frictional interactions at microscopic contact, has a high density and is spread with considerable speed mainly in the direction with the lowest thermal resistance due to the thermophysical characteristics of the material (density, conductivity) and thermal capacity, for example, thin boundary films (oil, oxide, servovite, sputtered, etc.) with a thickness of 1 µm and is comparable with the height of asperities.
The results of the research confirm the hypothesis about the role of the heat-shielding effect of lubricants on the microcontact overheating and changes in the structure and properties of both the lubricant and the metal surface layer, which in turn cause increased wear of machine parts.
Keywords: heat shielding effect, friction, surface, wear, bully.
Semenova E.V. ARCHIVE DOCUMENTS ON THE HISTORY OF THE VORONEZH FOREST MANAGEMENT (XIX - THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY)
Abstract: The article discusses the source base of the research on the history of forestry in the Voronezh province in the 19th - early 20th centuries. These are mainly archival materials stored in the State Archive of the Voronezh Region. A list of the main archival funds with a brief description of their contents is given. The analysis of the information richness of these materials and the possibility of their use in studying the history of forestry in the Voronezh province is given. The article also provides data on the history of state institutions engaged in forestry in the Voronezh province - the Voronezh chamber of state property, the provincial administration of state property, the provincial administration of agriculture and state property, the Forest Protection Committee. The characteristic of archival materials related to their history is given. The article also provides data on archival materials related to the activities of individual forestries of the Voronezh province, and their characteristics. A concrete example is given of how archival documents from central and local authorities provide conflicting information. Based on a review of the documents stored in the collections of the State Archive of the Voronezh Region, the author concludes about the richness and variety of archival materials on the history of forestry in the Voronezh province in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Keywords: archival materials, forestry, Voronezh province.
Sivolapov A.I., Sivolapov V.A. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS OF TOPOLS IN COMMUNICATION WITH SYSTEMS OF THEIR REPRODUCTION
Abstract: We consider poplar selection systems in connection with their reproduction systems. Poplar is a model object on which it is possible to test all known systems for the selection of woody plants. Positive selection and synthetic selection methods (hybridization, mutagenesis, polyploidy, genetic engineering, biotechnology) effectively “work” on poplar. Poplar is propagated by seed, vegetative and in vitro biotechnology. Amphimixis or seed propagation of poplar is used to create hybrid seed plantations, for example white poplar × aspen. In natural poplar populations, spontaneous hybridization occurs, leading to the emergence of new species. The ability to vegetatively propagate poplar successfully solves the problem of plus breeding: selected best biotypes are propagated by in vitro grafting, cuttings or regenerants, and plantation cultures are created. Synthetic breeding methods: hybridization is widely used on poplar; dozens of poplar hybrids for forest crops and landscaping have been obtained; Induced mutants and polyploids are obtained. Breeders get their first genetically modified forms using genetic engineering. By microcloning, economically valuable individuals are propagated and regenerants are used to create forest crops and landscaping.
Keywords: systems of selection and reproduction of poplar, a model object of genetic selection research.
Storodubtseva T.N., Andreishcheva I.S., Shatalova A.V. COLOR RANGE OF WOOD AND HUMAN PRODUCTS
Abstract: The article considers the psycho-emotional state of a person, which depends on the surrounding furniture, in this case, on its color scheme. Wood surrounds us everywhere and always, how does it affect us? Which wood is better in structure, in ease of production? What are the qualities of wood? And the main question is, what effect does wood furniture of different species have on us and how does it affect our health? We tried to find out these questions in our article. For the manufacture of furniture, it is necessary to use wood of a thin structure, which can be subjected to processing and apply a beautiful finish. Oak wood is suitable for the manufacture of bent furniture. It has large vessels and is well bent due to large vessels, while the wood fibers are not destroyed. At the end of the first year, students of the Forestry Faculty with a profile in furniture design and woodworking technology undergo practical training in the Vosmodrev workshop, gaining maximum knowledge about wood as a material for the manufacture of various types of products, processing and processing - production technologies. A very important factor is the color scheme, which is selected by the creators of the latest examples of the furniture industry for the emotional state of a person. It is important to consider which color causes which emotion - positive or negative.
Keywords: emotions, energy, man, wood, breed, color scheme.
Storobubtseva T.N., Bondarev B.A., Chernikov E.A. THE PROBLEM OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF WOOD COMPOSITION MATERIAL FOR TRANSPORT CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of finding the necessary properties of a polymer composite material for the production of sleepers, which is solved by an experimental statistical method. Solving this problem of multiple-criteria optimization, the necessary values of the mass coefficient and the bend of the railway sleeper were determined in natural and coded scales, respectively. The obtained properties of the material for a polymer composite sleeper are selected by reducing the parameters to the minimum permissible values that characterize the stress-strain state of the structure. Optimising the task of finding optimal properties of a sleeper structure made of composite material using this method, we obtain properties of the sleeper that can vary. The response of functions that depend on variable factors is presented in the form of second-order polynomial models in which the coefficients were determined by experiment planning methods. The bending coefficient is necessary to determine the elastic modulus of a polymer-composite sleeper in the longitudinal direction. The mass value is determined from the operating conditions in the railway track block and is 145-154 kg, the value of the elastic modulus in the longitudinal direction is 6200-7600 MPa, and in the transverse direction-not less than 1000 MPa.
Keywords: wood, experiment, polynomial, optimization, strength, composite.
Storobubtseva T.N., Bondarev B.A., Pyadukhova K.N. WASTE OF WOOD AND GLASS FIBER IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTS TRANSPORT CONSTRUCTION
Abstract: The results of experimental-theoretical work on the creation of new polymeric materials based on wood waste are considered. This material can be used in the outer layers of a wood-based polymer fiberglass composite in order to increase its strength properties. Instantaneous elastic moduli, conditional tensile strengths, and Poisson's ratio were determined, and the potential chemical activity of the components of the wood-based polymer fiberglass composite was revealed. The fiberglass polymer composite on the furfural-acetone monomer showed good performance when used as a structural composite of containers for storing aggressive liquids, chemically resistant tiles for shop floors, etc., which are exposed to electric current, aggressive liquids, and temperature. This material can be used in wood chemical production, capacities of energy chemical plants, furfural production, as well as in the outer layers of wood-based polymer fiberglass composite in order to increase its strength properties, specifically crack resistance. The basic compositions of the polymer fiberglass composite and its basic regulatory mechanical characteristics are given. This development is a kind of continuation of the theme of the use of forest industry waste for the production of competitive composite materials. This material will allow to utilize a huge amount of forest industry waste. In addition, the use of wood waste as a building material will make it possible to replace wood in some areas, which in turn will reduce logging and increase woodworking efficiency. All this will undoubtedly lead to an improvement in the ecological situation.
Keywords: composite materials, fiberglass, wood waste, polymer.
Tsepliaev A.N., Tsepliaeva A.A. ROOTING OF MEMBERS OF THE GENUS JUNIPERUS USING RHIZOGENESIS STIMULANTS
Abstract: The article discusses the results of the use of root formation stimulants in the green propagation of four varieties of juniper: juniperus scopilorum 'Moonglow', juniperus squamata 'Blue Star', juniperus communis 'Hibernica', juniperus virginiana in a tree-decorative nursery. Rooting was carried out in summer cultivation facilities under conditions of artificial fog. Four serial production stimulants were tested: Kornevin, Heteroauxin, Root, Zircon. Statistical processing of data showed that the use of all considered stimulants allowed us to obtain results other than control. This suggests that the use of stimulants affects the rooting of introducers, but this effect may be the opposite. It has been established that treatment of cuttings with phytohormones in some cases increases the regenerative capacity of the considered juniper varieties. A comparison between the effectiveness of the drugs shows that there are no differences between the "Root" and "Kornevin" actions, while the differences with other drugs are significant at the significance level. The greatest effectiveness was demonstrated by preparations based on β - indolylbutyric acid Ukorenit, Kornevin, as well as Heteroauxin (indolyl-3-acetic acid). Treatments with Zircon cuttings (a mixture of hydroxycinnamic acids) in most cases showed inhibition of rhizogenesis.
Keywords: cuttings, juniper, root-forming stimulants, rooting.
Chekmeneva Yu.V., Dorofeyeva V.D., Zamiusskaya E.V., Vasilyeva N.V. FEATURES OF THE SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT OF CONIFEROUS INTRODUCENTS IN THE ARBORETUM OF VSUFT OF VORONEZH
Abstract: The state and seasonal development of coniferous introducers in the arboretum of VGLTU was studied. Increased anthropogenic pressure on the territory of the arboretum, changes the age state of the collection, outbreaks of activity of diseases and pests of woody plants occur. In this regard, it is important to monitor the state of the plants of the collection, which includes measuring the morphometric parameters of plants, establishing the level of variation of characters, studying the seasonal growth and development of introducents. Differences in the occurrence of phenophases in different species are associated with biological characteristics and weather conditions of the year of observation. For forest-steppe zone Picea glehnii (Fr. Schmidt) Mast. begins and ends the growing season later compared to Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel. and Abies holophylla Maxim. Seasonal shoot growth is consistent with breed biology. The regularities of individual phenotypic variability of the vegetative sphere are revealed. The most stable is the variation of characters in Picea glehnii (Fr. Schmidt) Mast. (C.V. = 6.5 - 22%). The variability of characters in Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel. from medium to high level (C.V. = 14.6-21%). At an average - high level, the parameters of Abies holophylla Maxim change. (C.V. = 14-36%). Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel. and Abies holophylla Maxim. are more sensitive to environmental factors in the conditions of the arboretum, this is manifested in an increase in the variation of the signs of the vegetative sphere.
Keywords: phenological development, seasonal growth, , introduced species, phenotypic variability, arboretum, Voronezh, forest-steppe zone.
Chernikov E.A., Storodubtseva T.N., Shvyrev A.N. POLYMER COMPOSITION FOR RUTTING COATS FOR CAR ROAD FOREST TRANSPORT
Abstract: the network of modern temporary highways is operated only during logging, and at the end of the work and during the mud season are practically not used. Consequently, there is a need to create collapsible elements for temporary logging roads, which, if necessary, can be assembled in a fairly short time before starting work, is also easy to disassemble after the completion of logging operations and transported and laid in a new place. The coating is a slab containing a wooden multilayer frame made up of elements representing sawmill waste of low-value species, put on a rib or laid flat with gaps, providing a spillage of concrete or polymer mass based on furfural acetone monomer. Untreated wood provides oriented reinforcement along and across the building element, as a result of which its tensile, bending and chipping strength are increased, and bulk density is reduced. The article also considers the constrained swelling of wood filler when using it as a reinforcing element of concrete based on cement is more dangerous, since it is not possible to significantly increase its ultimate extensibility even when introducing latex into its composition. The use of reinforcing mesh is not possible, since the alkali contained in the wet environment of the cement stone destroys the fiberglass mesh.
Keywords: strength, coating, wood, concrete, tight swelling, saturation, adhesion.
Chernodubov А.I. CULTURE OF RED OAK VORONEZH UPLAND OAK
Abstract: The influence of some agrotechnical methods of planting 29-35-year-old artificial plantations of red oak on growth and productivity in the type of growing conditions – fresh substrate Was studied. Soils-gray forest loamy. It was found that the best indicators of preservation (55%) were revealed during continuous soil preparation in contrast to furrow cutting (19-32%). This is due to the optimal conditions for survival and adaptation to new environmental conditions. The optimal density of 5.6 thousand pieces per ha, which is achieved when placing 2, 5x0, 7 m. the scheme of mixing rocks is Important. In pure cultures of red oak on furrows the stock makes 132-163 m3/ha. At creation of the mixed culture of 5dkr5dch on an arable land it is respectively equal – 435 and 205 m3/ha. At the scheme of mixing of 3dkr2yao2lp2klo the stock decreases to 147 m3/ha. According to schemes of mixing the highest productivity (487-488 m3 / ha) is revealed at structure of 7dkr3b or 6dkr2yao2klo. At these compositions the most intensive growth on height and stocks of wood is noted. This is due to the fact that the red oak needs fitting breed because of its biological characteristics.
Keywords: Red oak, culture, density, mixing, growth, stock.
Scheblykin P.N. TO THE CALCULATION OF THE ELASTIC PRESSURE ELEMENTS OF THE FUSES OF THE WORKING BODIES OF A MILLING TILLAGE MACHINE
Abstract: The reliable operation of tillage forestry cutters largely depends on the perfection of their means of protection against overloads. The safety devices used to protect against overloading of tillage mills by torque do not fully provide adequate protection of working bodies and the drive against arising overloads, since they have significant dynamic loads, low accuracy of operation, complicate the design of the machine, and lead to premature failure of individual its parts and assemblies increase the cost and repair costs. The main criterion for the design of high-quality fuses in design that protect the drive units of the machine in terms of torque is the introduction of such elements into their design that would allow several functions to be performed at once.
Thus, this article presents recommendations that will allow the calculation of the main characteristics of the friction type fuses and their elements located in close proximity to the working body of the rotary forestry machine or built into them, having in their design elastic pressing elements of a flat cylindrical shape.
Keywords: reliability, resource, friction element, elastic element, operation, geometrical parameters, moment.
Yakovlev K.A., Legostaev S.A., Sklyarov I.N. WAYS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF LOGGING VEHICLES
Abstract: The article discusses ways to improve the quality of maintenance and maintenance of forest vehicles. Product quality is a controlled object that can be adjusted on the basis of the principles of general control theory, sequentially establishing quality planning tasks, organizing the actions of the actuator with ensuring the execution of these tasks, comparing the actual value of the obtained result with the planned task, implementing direct and reverse connections and possibilities of influencing the actuator in case of deviations of actual quality values from the planned task.
The goal of quality management is to create products of a quality level that meets certain needs and demands of the consumer, meets the established requirements.
Quality management is an organic component of the overall enterprise management system. All employees of the enterprise, including quality service personnel, participate in quality management and assurance.
The principles of operating quality systems at maintenance and repair enterprises (customer orientation; leadership of heads; Involvement of employees, process and system approaches to quality management, continuous improvement of the system, decision-making based on information monitoring) and factors affecting the quality of works (spare parts for units; timeliness of maintenance; quality of technical diagnosing; Qualification and motivation of employees).
Keywords: maintenance, maintenance, quality, improvement.
MODERN TECHNOLOGIES OF FORESTRY, WOODWORKING AND FURNITURE PRODUCTION
Belchinskaya L.I., Dmitrenkov A.I., Zhuzhukin N.V. COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC IMPREGNATING COMPOSITIONS FOR BIRCH WOOD
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of technologies for the use of used motor and vegetable oils for hydrophobizing treatment of birch wood. In this work, synthetic and semi-synthetic engine oil is used to impregnate wood; spent corn oil, sunflower oil, organosilicon liquid GKZh-11, industrial impregnating composition of ZhTK. The effectiveness of the impregnating compositions is estimated by the indicators of water absorption and swelling in two mutually perpendicular directions (radial, tangential). Spent motor and vegetable oils saturate wood quite well and give it hydrophobic properties. At the same time, impregnation of birch wood with used engine oil (OMM) allows to improve water absorption of birch wood by 52.1% compared to natural wood and by 21% compared to water absorption. Thus, the processing of birch wood with used motor and vegetable oils makes it possible to utilize production waste and improve the properties of low-value wood species with a significant increase in its resistance to external influences.
Keywords: wood, impregnation, hydrophobizing, antiseptization, wastes, vegetable oils, engine oil.
Efimova T.V., Ishchenko T.L., Pikalova L.D. MODERN FURNITURE MARKET TRENDS 2019
Abstract: Furniture changes occur infrequently, while at the present time, people are more and more carefully approaching the selection of furniture. They want to see in their house not only practical, high-quality furniture, but also furniture made according to the latest fashion trends in modern design. Therefore, the goal of our research was the modern trends of the furniture market in 2019. The main fashion trends in styles, patterns, colors, materials, accessories, forms of furniture are considered. Fashion is cyclical and by the end of the 90s it became a gigantic industry. Color trends from fashion catwalks affect interior design, becoming relevant for furniture and decoration in the current and future season. The main trends in interior design are set by the largest world exhibitions ISaloni, Maison & Objet, IMM Cologne, Stockholm Furniture & Light Fair. It is at such large venues that you can see new technologies, ideas and solutions that will play a major role in the interior in the near future. Modern trends in the interior in 2019 indicate that a successful and fashionable design of the living space is not just a beautiful, cozy and stylish house, but also an expression of the individuality of the owner of the house.
Keywords: furniture, trend, fashion, styles, interior design.
Kantieva E.V., Ponomarenko L.V., Posluchaev M.A. INVESTIGATION OF THE STRENGTH OF SOLID WOOD BONDING WITH DIFFERENT ADHESIVES
Abstract: In modern conditions of development of a national economy wood is among the most widespread constructive materials. Also, wood traditionally occupies its niche in the production of furniture and joinery. In these industries, the bonding of wood and wood materials is the main connection. Gluing of wood is made not only to give to preparations of the demanded sizes, but also improvement of operational characteristics, and also for the purpose of economy of a material. There are different types of gluing: gluing blanks in thickness and length, gluing tenon joints, gluing boards and gluing layouts on the edges of the boards, gluing with simultaneous bending, facing with wood and synthetic materials, gluing parts of soft furniture elements. The paper investigated the influence of the type of glue on the bonding strength of wood and wood materials in modern industrial use. Adhesives based on polychloroprene, polyvinyl acetate, rubber and wood materials of different species – ash and beech-were selected for the study. The tensile strength of the adhesive joint was controlled when chipping along the fibers. most suitable for gluing pieces of wood of firm deciduous breeds in the thickness and width are adhesives based on polyvinyl acetate. Noticeable differences in the strength of freshly glued seams on beech and ash are not recorded, which is explained by their almost identical density.
Keywords: wood, glue, adhesive compound, strength, joinery and furniture product.
Maksimenkov A.I., Вagno O.P. ON THE ISSUE OF PREPARATION OF CUTTING TOOLS FOR SAWING TIMBER ON BAND SAW EQUIPMENT
Abstract: the main drawback of circular sawing machines is the presence of broken teeth in the cut. In case of vibrations, violation of the saw plane, mismatch of the feed direction with the saw planes, and rebasing, these teeth spoil the processing surface. Belt sawing allows you to ensure high quality of lumber on the roughness of their surface at high feed rates; increase productivity by 1.5-2 times due to mechanization and automation of technological operations. One of the most important advantages of band saws is the small width of the cut, which is 1.5-2 times smaller than that of the sawmill; the small thickness of the saw ensures low consumption of wood in sawdust and high volume output of lumber. Sawing wood on band saws, in the vast majority of cases, is characterized by face cutting. Of the 3 forms of chip formation when cutting into the end, for band saws, the most characteristic is the formation of the chip element by chipping it with the stratification of wood along the bottom of the cut. The quality of the surface, in terms of its roughness, in addition to the formation of the chip element, is affected by its location in the interdental space, the presence and degree of compression and transportation of the chip element. The quality of the surface, in terms of its roughness, in addition to the formation of the chip element, is affected by its location in the interdental space, the presence and degree of compression and transportation of the chip element. As a result of studies of the initial conditions for the development of the teeth sharpening scheme, the orientation of the active elements of the blade relative to the middle plane of the saw can be identified as the main ones.
Keywords: sawmilling, band saw, chip formation, surface quality, preparation of cutting tools.
Meshceryakova A.A., Lugovoi D.A. INFORMATION MODELING OF AUTOMATED WORKPLACE OF SAWMILL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIST
Abstract: The article discusses methodologies that allow to describe and visualize various business processes, their study and obtaining answers to questions of interest. This is necessary for a visual representation of technological processes and the search for ways to increase their efficiency. For the successful implementation of information systems, the design model must be carefully described; information models of information systems must be built. Without the use of any information technology, the design of objects is carried out on an intuitive level, using practical design skills. Using the methods of visual presentation of information, give a visual representation of the information modeling of the workstation of a sawmill technologist. This involves the construction of structural diagrams, the ability to build diagrams using color schemes, diagrams allow you to test at different levels and determine cyclic elements. CASE-technologies allow you to quickly and clearly develop an information model of any complexity and any depth of detail of the project. CASE tools for developing an information model apply diagrams at various levels. Information modeling of the automated workplace of a sawmill technologist is intended to carry out a set of measures aimed at organizing the technological process of a sawmill for the production of edged and unedged sawn timber.
Keywords: methodology, structural analysis, design, IDEF0, information model, decomposition, chart.
Platonov A.D., Kiseleva A.V., Snegireva S.N. THE LAYER-BY-LAYER VARIATION OF WOOD DENSITY UNDER UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION
Abstract: Currently, stocks of hardwoods in the Russian Federation are severely depleted and there is a shortage of raw materials on the market. One solution to this problem is the possibility of replacing hardwoods with pressed wood obtained from softwoods. As a result of the performed study, the change in the layer-by-layer density in the thickness of blanks made of pressed wood was found. The variation of density in the thickness of the workpiece depends on the moisture content of the wood at the time of pressing. At a humidity of 15 %, the wood is more compacted in the Central part than on the surface of the workpiece. When the humidity corresponds to the saturation limit of the cell walls of 30 %, the wood on the contrary is less compacted in the Central part, as well as on the surface of the samples. It was found that with the same average density of blanks made of pressed wood, the difference between the densest and less dense parts of the workpiece averaged 7.6-10.1 %. Based on these data, it is possible to obtain pressed wood with a given density distribution over the thickness of the workpieces. The results of the experiments will be useful in obtaining pressed wood with specified quality indicators, as well as in the manufacture of various structural elements and components from pressed wood.
Keywords: pressed wood, density, birch, uniaxial pressing, humidity.
Polyakov S.I., Yenin P.V., Parfyonov A.V. AUTOMATIC CONTROL STRUCTURE FOR FORESTRY MATERIALS
Abstract: The article discusses a method of extreme control of the driving effects of the microclimate, which consists in keeping the objective function at the point of extremum for the control system. To solve the problem of extreme management, it is necessary to introduce computerization of the control and development of forest planting material. This will allow you to collect statistical information for the entire time of observation of plant growth. The primary task here is the analysis of observations and the possibility of generating regulatory influences from the microprocessor control system of the microclimate of the greenhouse. From literature sources, the stages of development of forest seedlings are known, for which data on the natural growth of seedlings and seedlings based on processing of statistical material are obtained. To date, recent studies show that there are no necessary mathematical models, both in growth and in the development of planting material under changing conditions and the nature of growth, and in time periods. Thus, objects of sheltered soil can be attributed from the point of view of the object of control and regulation to systems with variable parameters. That is, they can be characterized as unknown mathematical models.
Keywords: extreme control, microclimate, objective function, greenhouse, plants, extremum, required growth, optimal modes, control, computerization.
Razinkov E.M., Ishchenko T.L. JUSTIFICATION OF CHANGE OF REQUIREMENTS TO NUMBER OF INDICATORS IN SOME STANDARDS ON WOOD PROCESSING
Abstract: For production of case furniture wood-shaving plates (DSTP) and medium-density fiber boards - plates of the PMV wood monostructural fibrous brand (plate MDF) are widely used. And, both faces, and edges of plates come to production of furniture the revetted thermosetting polymeric films, sliced veneer or other cladding materials, for example paper-based laminated plastic (BSP).
One of the main defects of such plates is the insufficient durability of their outside or surface layers of face that is one of shortcomings of plates as leads to flaking of cladding material. And, when flaking the facing layer entrains part of surface layer of plate. Indicator of durability of skin of plates is the specific resistance to normal separation of layer at depth of 0,3 - 0,7 mm from plate surface which is defined in accordance with GOST 23234-2009 .
However, as have shown results of our researches, in a number of standards on wood processing it is necessary to make changes in part of test method of plates on the specific resistance to normal separation of layer of skin not at depth of 0,3 - 0,7 mm (as in accordance with GOST 23234-2009), and surface layer. In this regard it is necessary to make changes to state standard specifications 10632-2014  and 32274-2013  on required values of specific resistance to normal separation of surface layer, but not layer at depth of 0,3 - 0,7 mm from plate surface.
Keywords: wood-shaving plate, plate of the PMV wood monostructural fibrous brand, specific resistance to normal separation of skin of plates, test head.
Medvedev I.N., Parinov D.A., Shamaev V.A. MODIFICATION OF LOW-VALUE WOOD SPECIES IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE INDICATOR PRODUCTS
Abstract: wood modification is a process of improving the physical and mechanical properties of low-value of the tree species, such as birch, aspen, poplar, etc. currently, this direction is very promising in wood processing. The main technological methods for modifying of low-value of the tree species include impregnation, pressing and drying, including an additional operation-heat treatment. In addition, the wood can be treated with magnetic or ultrasonic fields.
By means of impregnation, substances are introduced into the wood that increase its plasticity, hydrophobicity, bio-fire resistance and formostability.
As a result of pressing, the volume of wood is reduced and its density and strength are increased, hence the performance characteristics are increased.
Heat treatment of wood contributes to a significant increase in its hydrophobicity, bio-resistance and form stability.
A pilot industrial drying and pressing unit СПК-5M has been developed that allows to implement three technological methods (drying, impregnation, pressing) in one cycle. The product obtained at the installation is sleepers and power line supports that have high performance indicators compared to those traditionally used. The developed technology solves two problems:
1) the problem is solved with the use of low-value tree species (birch, aspen, poplar) rotting in cutting areas and lower warehouses in logging enterprises;
2) the problem of short service life of wooden sleepers and power transmission poles.
The projected service life of the resulting products will be 30-50 years.
Keywords: wood, low-value wood species, performance indicators, products.
Starikov A.V., Meshkov D.A. MULTI-AGENT APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF THE PROCESS OF THE DISTRIBUTED FURNITURE DESIGN
Abstract: Custom-made industrial production of cabinet furniture, focused on the needs of end-user of furniture products, imposes a number of stringent requirements on the process of designing new products. As a basic condition ensuring the fulfillment of these requirements, a modern concept of a virtual furniture design bureau (VFDB) is proposed, within which the distributed (combined) design of furniture products and ensembles is implemented. For effective development of distributed projects in a multi-agent environment of VFDB, it is necessary to use a management system that ensures coordination of the work of project participants, monitoring the current state of the project, notifying project participants about various situations in project work, etc. A feature of this control system is its invariance, i.e. independence from the design tools used in the work on the project, as well as the possibility of its dynamic adjustment to the specific structure of the design process. It is proposed to use a serial-parallel pipeline of the design as a conceptual model of the distributed design process.
Keywords: furniture industrial production by order, virtual furniture design bureau, multi-agent environment, distributed design, management system of the distributed design.
Starikov A.V., Starikova A.A. REVIEW OF THE MODERN CAD SYSTEMS FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY
Abstract: The article presents the results of a brief comparative analysis of specialized CAD systems used in the furniture industry. In particular, it is noted that the functioning of CAD for mechanical engineering is based on geometric models of design objects, which are a mathematical reflection of information about the properties of forms and structural features of the furniture products. Therefore, such CAD systems can be quickly and relatively easily adapted to solve the problems of the furniture industry. At the same time, specialized CAD furniture products were widely used. This is determined by the engineering and artistic nature of the furniture products. The functional capabilities of most modern furniture CAD systems provides a high level of design automation, including products modeling, the creation of drawings and cutting maps of structural and decorative-facing materials, and the preparation of control programs for automated technological equipment.
Keywords: design, design automation, computer-aided design (CAD) systems, furniture products, furniture manufacturing technological processes, custom-made industrial furniture manufacturing, design and technological preparation of production, virtual furniture design bureau, cloud technologies.
TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOREST COMPLEX OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Artyomov A.V., Goncharenko S.V., Pryadkin V.I. DETERMINING THE CONTACT SPOT OF ULTRA-LOW PRESSURE TIRES 1020X420-18 BEL-79 FOR SMALL-CLASS FORESTRY EQUIPMENT
Abstract: This article discusses the features of the environmental impact of wheeled vehicles on the soil and ways to reduce it. It was determined that one of the ways to reduce the harmful impact on the ground is to increase the tire contact spot and reduce the specific pressure in contact. The article discusses the main existing methods for determining the parameters of the contact spot of ultra-low pressure tires. The analysis of the considered methods is carried out, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages. Laboratory tests of the 1020x420-18 bus of the Bel-79 model used as a propellant on small-class forest tires were carried out. The research was carried out using a universal functional test bench for tires of the SIB-1M model. based on the method of static loading of the wheel with the application of an imprint of the painted area of the tire tread on a solid non-deformable platform, a series of experiments was carried out to determine the influence of the radial load and internal air pressure in the tire on the parameters of the tire contact spot. The results of the research are the dependences of the change in the shape of the contour and the actual area of the tire contact spot with the solid support axis. Approximating power functions, we obtained dependencies for determining the tire contact area from the radial deflection.
Keywords: ultra-low pressure tire, tire deformation, contact spot, machine patency.
Goptarev S.M., Vostrikov D.S., Manukovsky A.Yu. GEOCRIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE BULK OF AUTOMOBILEROAD USING VOLUME GEOROGETS
Abstract: The article discusses the technological processes of the use of geogrids in the construction and repair of subgrade in areas with low air temperatures. The calculation of the overall stability of slopes or slopes closed by geogrids as applied to areas where erosion processes are widely developed is given. Accounting processes are usually carried out in the framework of work on individual design, with scientific support. Some general recommendations on the design of structures from geogrids and calculations of their interaction with disconnected soils during cryogenic processes are described. Thermal erosion processes most dynamically develop in the northern part of Western Siberia. Especially active is thermoerosion associated with the activities of temporary streams. On the territory of the Ural Federal District, during the construction, maintenance and repair of roads in a number of sections, slopes and embankment slope surfaces are strengthened to protect against erosion and thermoerosion processes using Geoveb technology with volumetric geogrids.
Keywords: highway, ground, slope stability, subgrade, geogrids, long-distance thermo-erosion, anchor rods / racks.
Kartashova N.P. ARCHITECTURAL AND PLANNING SOLUTION OBJECTS' RESTRICTIVE USES
Abstract: Green spaces in cities perform many different useful functions: noise-proof, dust-absorbing, have an impact on the processes of insolation, they enrich the air with phytoncides, and also play a huge aesthetic role, which has a beneficial effect on the psychological state of people.
In matters of planning and improvement of various objects, much attention is paid to landscaping. Green spaces can be used in planning and architectural solutions. Therefore, it is necessary to take a more careful approach to gardening and landscaping. This is especially true for objects where children are staying for a long time. This object is the Palace of creativity of children and youth of the city of Voronezh, the territory of which served for research. Such objects must be maintained in an appropriate sanitary and aesthetic condition, which will improve the quality of perception of the territory. Unsettled areas of institutions have a negative impact on the mood and General well-being of children and their parents, and may also contain a potential danger to the person at the time of stay. In particular, the unsatisfactory condition of plantings, roads, and small architectural forms is dangerous.
Therefore, it is necessary to assess the state of the territory and recommend measures for landscaping and improvement, taking into account the requirements, as well as to develop an architectural and planning solution. As a result, a landscape and environmental assessment was performed, which consists in determining the type of spatial structure, assessing the state of plantings, aesthetic and sanitary assessments, the stage of digression, and recreational capacity. Based on the results of the study, functional zoning was developed. The balance of the territory was determined and it was found that the percentage of greenery does not meet the required standards. The condition of the plantings on the site was assessed as satisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to Supplement the number of plantings with the most stable types of tree and shrub vegetation, taking into account their decorative and aesthetic value. It is necessary to properly carry out the improvement of the object, to develop an architectural and planning composition of the territory of the Palace of creativity of children and youth.
Keywords: green spaces, stability, landscape and environmental assessment, functional zoning, assortment of plants, architectural and planning solution, landscaping.
Kolyadin P.A., Pryadkin V.I. MODELING THE TRANSMISSION OF A MOBILE MEANS ON TIRES OF EXTRA LOW PRESSURE TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE INFLUENCE OF ROAD UNEQUALITIES
Abstract: The work is devoted to the problem of negative dynamic effects on the transmission and the engine of a mobile vehicle on ultra-low pressure tires. When using this propulsion device on technological means, the load on wheel reducers (final drives), half shafts, differential, final drive, on the shaft and cardan drive hinges, spline connection, transfer case, elastic transmission clutch, transmission drive and driven shafts sharply increases with gears, clutch driving and driven parts, engine crankshaft. When the load on these elements is excessive, their service life is reduced, and excessive loading can even lead to a sudden failure. Since each of these nodes is somehow fixed on the frame of the vehicle, to which vibrations from the unevenness of the rolling surfaces perceived by the propulsion are transmitted, they also have an additional effect. For a comprehensive assessment of the dynamic loading of the transmission and the engine of a mobile vehicle equipped with ultra-low pressure tires, taking into account the influence of road irregularities, a mobile vehicle model was compiled. The model will allow a more accurate calculation of the basic characteristics of technological equipment transmissions on ultra-low pressure tires.
Keywords: modeling, transmission, dynamic model.
Kuharenko S.P., Dzyubenko O.L., Klyuyev D.A. INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL AUTHORIZED ENVIRONMENT FOR THE STUDY OF THE DISCIPLINE
Abstract: The Relevance of the study is determined by the need to reduce the intensity of the educational process of cadets of Junior courses, due, in particular, the large volume of the discipline "Theoretical mechanics" and the lack of experience of studying in a military University.
Keywords: information and educational environment, educational institutions.
Lukina I.K., Selivanova A.S., Temirsultanova B.M. THE ROLE OF LANDSCAPE COMPONENT IN THE CREATION OF «HUMAN SCALE» URBAN ENVIRONMENT
Abstract: Excessive increase in the size of the main urban development objects on the one hand, and the creation of abstract volumes of the urban environment that do not have any familiar details comparable to the size of a person on the other hand, creates an architecture completely divorced from people and hostile to them. Therefore, there was a need to justify the use of landscape components to create a medium-scale human environment. The natural environment is that component of the spatial planning structure of the city, which, if properly placed, will absorb the negative psychological effect of the perception of huge undifferentiated abstract arrays of buildings in a re-compacted urban environment. The main criterion for the psychological comfort of a city dweller is the visual contact of a person in the house with the street, the ability to see the details and, most importantly, understand what they are in relation to the person. Along with small architectural forms, such elements will be trees, shrubs, benches, information boards, which have constant and understandable ergonomic dimensions. This is what is always referred to in the term anthropocentrism in architecture. The article proposes to clarify the concept of “human scale” on the basis of a systematic understanding of scale in architecture, and then this category of scale is considered not as a compositional means of aesthetic expressiveness of the urban environment, but as a factor in biological safety and physical survival of a person in conditions of total urbanization.
Keywords: urban environment, human scale landscape architecture, urbanization.
Nikonov V.O., Posmetev V.I., Sizmin I.V. PNEUMO-HYDRAULIC TRACTION AND COUPLING DEVICE OF A FORESTRY CAR WITH TRAILER
Abstract: The urgency of the need for constructive improvement of the towing device of a forest car with a trailer, aimed at increasing its reliability, reducing metal consumption, reducing fuel consumption of a forest car with a trailer due to the accumulation and reuse in the process of energy that is not efficiently dissipated into the environment of the energy generated in the traction coupling device when driving a road train. The conditions for the removal of forest materials by a timber truck with a trailer in the conditions of logging are described. The basic regulatory documents governing the requirements for the design of towing devices are considered. The main transient processes during the movement of a forest car with a trailer are described, which contribute to the appearance of large dynamic loads from the inertia of the forest car and trailer in the towing device. A promising design of a pneumatic-hydraulic towing device of a forest car with a trailer is proposed, which allows converting kinetic energy that inevitably arises in the towing device from the inertia forces of the masses of a forest car and trailer to potential for its further useful use in technological hydraulic equipment of a forest car with a trailer . The device and the operation of the pneumatic-hydraulic towing device of a forest car with a trailer are described. It is established that the use of the developed device will reduce fuel consumption, increase reliability and improve the smoothness of the forest car with a trailer.
Keywords: traction coupling device, timber truck, trailer, inertia forces, pneumohydraulic accumulator, recovery, pneumohydraulic device, hydraulic energy.
Novikov A.P., Khripchenko M.S., Kashchenko V.E. COMBINED ELECTRICITY SYSTEM FOR FORESTRY MACHINES
Abstract: The work proposes an improved combined power supply system for forest transport machines, consisting of a small-power electromagnetic generator and a thermoelectric generator, which will increase the efficiency and environmental friendliness of the machines used in the forest complex. The global and domestic modern scientific potential is tuned to solve an urgent problem, namely: the use of new technologies to obtain nanomaterials. The result of the use of new materials is the development and implementation of highly efficient energy-saving systems .
When designing modern forest transport machines, elements of modern electronics, energy, communication systems, heating and air conditioning are widely used, where polymer materials (PM) are widely used. Especially often they are used in the form of gaskets, films, coatings and adhesive layers. Harsh operating conditions for timber transport quite often require the use of PM products with special properties (increased thermal conductivity) while maintaining mechanical characteristics .
As you know, environmental requirements for vehicles of any kind are increasing every year. One of the ways to improve environmental friendliness is to increase profitability, and this is possible with the modernization of forest transport machines, in particular, through the use of energy-saving technologies, which undoubtedly include the use of a thermoelectric generator as a power source for the onboard network of a forest transport machine.
Keywords: electromagnetic generator, thermoelectric generator, polymeric material (PM), thermal energy, thermocouples, electrical energy.
Posmetev V.I., Nikonov V.O., Avdyuhin A.V. PROMISING DESIGN OF A RECUPERATIVE SPRING-HYDRAULIC FIFTH WHEEL TRAILER TRUCK WITH A SEMITRAILER
Abstract: The relevance of the development and use of new promising designs of fifth wheel coupling devices for forestry tractors with semitrailers, aimed at ensuring the simplicity of the design of fifth wheel coupling devices, their high reliability, safety in work, reducing metal consumption and the possibility of accumulating and using energy that is not efficiently dissipated into the environment, is substantiated. The operating conditions of timber tractors with semitrailers for timber removal are described. The main transients occurring in the fifth wheel coupling and contributing to the emergence in it of large dynamic loads from the inertia of the mass of the semitrailer are given. A promising design of a recuperative spring-hydraulic fifth wheel trailer truck with a semitrailer is proposed, which allows to reduce the energy losses that occur in the fifth wheel trailer, to accumulate and is useful to use in the hydraulic drive of the manipulator during the loading and unloading of timber. The device and operation of the regenerative spring-hydraulic fifth wheel coupling are described. It was revealed that the use of the proposed device will improve ride smoothness and reduce fuel consumption of the forest tractor with a semitrailer, as well as provide more favorable conditions for the driver to work.
Keywords: design, forest tractor, semitrailer, recovery, hydraulic energy, spring-hydraulic fifth wheel coupling.
Sukhorukikh A.V. THE IMPORTANCE OF «HUMAN CAPITAL» AND «KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY» IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF FORESTRY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Abstract: The article actualizes the importance of the concepts «human capital» and «knowledge society» in the situation of innovative development of the most important social spheres: education, culture, economy. The article reveals the essence and theoretical justification of the concept of «human capital» in the interpretation of foreign (T. Schultz, G. Becker, M. Friedman, M. Foucault, P. Bourdieu, J. Passeron) and domestic (R. I. Kapelyushnikov, Y. A. Korchagin, V. V. Radaev, N. M. Rimashevskaya) researchers. We trace the growth factor of «human capital» as a key strategic resource in the dynamics of sociogenesis and conceptual content of the phenomenon of «knowledge society», which is more or less correlated in the meaning of the concept of «information society». The fundamental importance of the humanistic orientation of knowledge in the modern socio-cultural and educational space, as well as the ethical and epistemological vector of the communicative and information model of socialization, explicating universal values, is indicated. It is emphasized that information processes in the early ХХI century are a very important vector of development of modern civilization, and this circumstance determines the global trends in education. However, no less important to base educational strategies for the future the primary factor remains the philosophy of man, the strategy of accumulating Humanities and humanistic national resource and human capital, projected for Russia and for civilization in General absolute meanings and core values of its existence.
Keyword: innovation, culture, education, «human capital», «knowledge society».
INNOVATIVE ECONOMY IN FOREST COMPLEX
Avdeeva I.A., Manchenko O.S. DETERMINANTS OF IMPROVING THE SYSTEM OF REGULATORY DOCUMENTATION OF EXECUTIVE AUTHORITIES OF CONSTITUENT ENTITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Abstract: A study of the regulatory documentation of the executive authority of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation in the field of forestry was carried out in order to identify the determinants of improving the regulatory documentation system. It is noted that the system of regulatory documentation of the executive body under review is represented by status, functional and official regulations. It is indicated that the body in the field of its activities in the provision of public services and the performance of public functions to exercise control (supervision) performs a significant number of interagency interactions. Moreover, these interactions do not rely on specific regulatory documents – administrative regulations for interagency cooperation. Such a lacunae in the system of administrative regulations of the body in question causes the imperfection, non-optimality of its work. It is shown that one of the most significant manifestations of this situation is the state of affairs in the field of cooperation with law enforcement agencies in the prompt identification of violators of forest legislation and timely recovery of damage from these violations. The system of this interaction does not have a proper regulatory document and is characterized by low efficiency. It is concluded that the regulation of interaction with law enforcement agencies is a determinant of improving the system of regulatory documentation of this body. In this regard, the relevance of the activities of the body in question in the field of formulating proposals for the development of regulations, and, possibly, their more than approved local testing as an experiment at the level of individual regions, was noted. It is proposed in order to establish the procedure for interaction between bodies exercising powers in the field of forest relations and law enforcement agencies in identifying, suppressing, investigating and solving crimes in the field of forest use, to develop a regulation for interaction at the regional level.
Keywords: executive authority of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, sphere of forest relations, determinants of improvement, system of regulatory documentation, administrative regulations, interagency cooperation.
Bezrukova T.L., Kuksova I.V. CONDITIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TIMBER INDUSTRY
Abstract: The article proposes an assessment of thе conditions for thе sustainablе devеlopmеnt of thе timber industry complex, taking into account the correlation analysis of indicators. The calculation of the correlation coefficients made it possible to identify the crampedness and direction of the relationship of the studied conditions. The process of development of innovations in production, in the creation of new materials and other areas, like any technogenic impact, can cause a negative, adverse effect on the environment, the protection of which becomes one of the priority tasks of modern ecologically oriented economic development. This characteristic of the conditions can be further used in the regional administration for an adequate diagnosis of the current situation, to identify causal relationships between indicators and forecasting the parameters of the balanced development of the timber industry complex. To achieve sustainable development of the forestry complex, it is extremely important to coordinate the three main elements - еconomic growth, social intеgration and еnvironmental protеction. The concept of sustainable development of the forestry complex should provide for continuous improvement based on the use of fewer forest resources for production and minimization of harmful effects on the environment. The duration of forest cultivation necessitates early adoption of strategic management decisions in the fiеld of forest managеment and rеproduction of forest resources. A necessary condition for the successful solution of such a problem is the formation of conditions for the sustainable development of the timber industry complex. The proposed conditions do not contradict the foreign requirements for the financial analysis of the complex, since it has all the necessary sections, supplemented and adapted to the domestic conditions for carrying out economic activities and taking into account the specifics of financial monitoring.
Keywords: conditions, sustainable development, forestry complex correlation analysis.
Bezrukova T.L., Malanyak S.V. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE FORMATION OF INNOVATIVE AND INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN THE FOREST SECTOR
Abstract: The modern forest complex of the Russian Federation needs systemic transformations aimed at transforming its organizational and managerial foundations and production and technological models into an innovative format. The relevance of this target setting is confirmed by the fact that our country has a very high potential for the development of the forest complex (1/4 of all wood reserves are concentrated in the country), but in the world market our products are sold mainly in the form of raw materials, that is, with a very low added value. Modern scientific approaches, as well as axiomatic and hypothetical methods of cognition were applied in the work. In the course of the study, the main features of the innovative development of the domestic forest complex were considered, the main factors that prevent the formation of an effective innovation environment (exo - and endo-level) were identified. The state measures on activation of innovative potential and development of branch productions are worked out, the assessment of the key problems characteristic for a domestic forest complex and their reasons is carried out. Also, direct and indirect criteria of determination (cause-and-effect relations) are established between the latter, a scheme-model of formation of the innovative environment of the forest complex is developed. The paper proposes promising directions of innovative transformation of the forest complex of the Russian Federation taking into account its features / conditions of operation, risk factors and uncertainty, the existing potential and reserves, key issues and shortcomings in terms of organization, management and production.
Keywords: forest complex, innovative development, organization and management, logistics, risks and key problems.
Zinovyeva I.S., Medvedev P.V. MONITORING FIRES IN THE TERRITORY OF FOREST FUND OF REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Abstract: This work is devoted to the consideration of the problems of reducing forest resources, which is largely associated with fires that occur in hard-to-reach areas and in areas with increased recreational load. In this regard, the creation of an effective fire detection system using various types of monitoring – ground, aviation, and space – is of particular relevance and importance. An important monitoring task is not only monitoring the fire situation, but also assessing the effects of fires. To determine the location of forest fires on the lands of the forest fund and other categories of lands, as well as to collect and store data, the Avialesohrana Federal State Budgetary Institution uses remote monitoring of the ISDM-Rosleskhoz system, which helps to quickly detect fires using satellites, record them, and compile information on foci and give them an assessment. According to the ISDM-Rosleskhoz data, a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the number of forest fires in the regions of the Russian Federation for 2017-2019 was carried out, as well as an analysis of the area of forest land covered by fires in 2015-2019, the results of which revealed a growing trend in the number of fires and their increase area. As a result, it was concluded that it is necessary to improve the system of remote monitoring of forest fires with the aim of preventing, timely detecting and preventing spread.
Key words: forest fires, monitoring system, innovations in extinguishing forest fires, forest fund, forest burning.
Morkovina S.S., Rafailov M.K. TOOL OF ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF FOREST COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL PROJECT «FOREST CONSERVATION»
Abstract: The article assesses the state of forest reproduction processes in Russia. Information is provided on the state of the forest infrastructure providing for the cultivation of forest seedlings. It is shown that the mechanism for the development of forestry should be based on the supporting reforestation infrastructure, taking into account a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of the operation of infrastructure facilities, the use of which helps to solve the problem of stabilizing activities in the system of the entire forest complex of the Russian Federation.
The analysis of the implementation of the federal project “Forest Conservation” is carried out and the necessity of using new tools for its implementation at the level of regional forest management systems is substantiated.
The need for improving the quality and effectiveness of reforestation work carried out by lessees of forest areas is noted. In a number of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the prerequisites for the formation of forest breeding and seed centers within the infrastructure of the forest complex have been formed, the knowledge of which allows filling the theory of strategic innovative development of forestry as a whole and reforestation in its composition with new content.
It is scientifically substantiated that the successful implementation of a federal project is not possible without the use of tools of economic sustainability of organizations, an integral part of which is the model for achieving key indicators. A model of the functioning of the results and the achievement of indicators of the federal project is proposed.
Keywords: project management, federal project, forest conservation, economic sustainability, infrastructure facilities, reforestation.
Panyavina E.A. FEATURES OF CRISIS MANIFESTATIONS IN FOREST COMPLEX OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Abstract: Development trends of forestry enterprises indicate the presence of problems in their activities. The analysis of the activities and development of forestry enterprises and the forest industry made it possible to formulate a list of key problems holding back the development of the forest complex of the Russian Federation. Part of the problems relating to the internal environment, enterprises are able to solve independently, using, inter alia, government support measures. However, the problems associated with the external environment, the enterprises of the forest complex of the Russian Federation can not solve on their own. It has been determined that the existing regulatory legal acts and measures to stimulate the development of industry enterprises do not fully ensure the development of the forest complex and require substantial revision. The imperfection of the existing mechanism of interaction between forestry and the forest industry is proved. The identified problems of the forest complex contribute to the development of crisis manifestations. To ensure the sustainability of the forestry enterprises, taking into account the features of their functioning, directions are proposed for developing an effective model of state management of the forestry complex.
Keywords: forest complex, crisis, crisis manifestations, forestry, forest industry, features of crisis manifestations.
Stepanova Yu.N. INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FOREST SECTOR: THE CASE OF THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
Abstract: The Russian forest sector is now undergoing global changes related to the development of digitalization and innovation. Raising the innovation level is a strategically important task for the country. It depends on the conditions created for the development of intellectual resources. Forest is a natural capital, partially forming the country's national wealth. Russia occupies leading positions in the world forest yield. Attraction of innovation to the forest sector is the urgent task. For a long time, forest sector was unattractive for businesses and investors due to the long cultivation cycle, natural risks and large fire losses. Here innovations should come to rescue. They enable to automate biological processes and gain progress in productivity growth. Innovations should not be borrowed technologies, but created using our own resources. Today, scientists from Germany, Italy, and Costa Rica are looking for different approaches increasing forestry innovative potential. We propose to use knowledge for innovative development of the forest sector: there is a direct relationship between the levels of innovative activity and education. The aim of this article is to create instruments for the forestry innovative development, based on the knowledge economy, leading to the innovation formation.
Keywords: knowledge economy, the timber industry, innovation potential.
Titova E.V., Shevchenko A.N. BASIC DIRECTIONS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOREST PRODUCTS
Abstract: Currently, in accordance with the processes of globalization and global economic and environmental trends, the Russian government is focusing economic entities on the innovative development of the Russian economy. For the timber industry of the Russian Federation, which ranks first in the world in terms of timber reserves, a transition to innovative development is inevitable. This transition is due to the resource potential of the industry, global environmental trends of the "green economy", the prevailing market relations between the economic entities of the industry, the presence of a bank of scientific and technical and experimental development in the field of timber industry. The analysis of Russia's share in the global forestry market is carried out: the Russian Federation is the world leader in timber reserves, it has 1/5 of the world's forest reserves and, therefore, takes first place; Brazil ranks second in timber reserves, Canada is third and the United States is fourth. The structure of Russia's exports by product groups is examined: the country's most profitable budget item is the export of fuel and energy products, accounting for 64% of the total export structure, and only 3% of the export structure is the export of timber and paper products. Given the development trends of world oil markets and the geopolitical tensions of countries, it can be assumed that in the next 5 years, the total revenue of the Russian Federation from the export of fuel and energy products will significantly decrease and will cease to be the most profitable budget item in the country. Due to the fact that the Russian Federation is a world leader in timber reserves, we believe that the innovative development of the timber industry should be one of the leading areas in the industry development strategy of the Russian Federation, and accordingly in the export strategy of the Russian Federation. The main directions of the innovative development of the timber industry of the Russian Federation in the following sectors are identified: forestry, woodworking industry, pulp and paper industry, chemical production, logging, wooden housing construction.
Keywords: timber industry complex, innovative development, innovations, forest industry.
Shanin I.I. ON INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT TIMBER PROCESSING COMPLEX
Abstract: In modern economic conditions, the domestic timber industry complex is characterized by the complexity and peculiarities of its activity, connected with the high level of available risks in the introduction of innovations and the latest production technologies. There are also risks of investment in technological innovation, determined by risks of a temporary nature between the stages of financing in innovation and the results obtained. LPC activities are characterized by unstable demand for innovative timber products. Most risks affect, to varying degrees, attracting investment capital and increasing financial resources for the development of the forest sector as a whole.
The poor transport infrastructure for forest production, poor quality of forest resources due to extensive forest management, as well as the large volume of illegally harvested wood and the depletion of its reserves are constraints on the innovative development of timber enterprises. To a large extent, the precarious financial situation of timber enterprises is due to the high material and energy intensity of production, with higher prices and tariffs for natural monopolies. The article defines the current state of the innovative component of the enterprises of the forest industry complex, defines possible ways to increase innovation activity on the basis of the investigated indicators.
Keywords: innovative development, enterprises, timber industry complex.
Yudina N.Yu., Kushcheva I.S., Nazarov B.T. DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE SYSTEMS BY FUZZY LOGIC
Abstract: In e-commerce, profit depends on both quantitative and qualitative indicators - Internet services and their quality, trends in market size, fluctuations in business activity depending on the season, customer inflows and their outflows, product costs. All of these indicators have fuzzy descriptions. E-commerce is a dynamic segment of economic activity. Despite the general principles of marketing, this direction has a number of unique opportunities. The main focus of e-commerce is the sale of services and goods using the Internet. At the same time, the possibilities of e-commerce are very diverse. In this article, we will consider one of the possibilities - an online store. This is a software product that is designed as a Web site, which is further used as a platform for shopping and selling goods. This article discusses using the fuzzy logic apparatus to build an e-commerce model and evaluate alternatives. The statement of the problem is as follows: with many alternatives, we have outcomes: in the case of certainty, one, and with uncertainty, perhaps a certain number of options. Each specific outcome is characterized by a certain state that the object will have after implementing the alternative described by the efficiency criterion that determines the value of the outcome preference indicator. It is necessary to determine the strategy for choosing the most preferable alternative, corresponding to the performance indicator.
Keywords: E-commerce, fuzzy logic, alternative, outcome, performance criteria.
Yakovleva E.A., Subkhanberdin A.Sh. THE MARKET POTENTIAL OF INNOVATIVE FOREST PRODUCTS
Abstract: The article summarizes the data on the competitive advantages of innovative forest products in Russia and abroad. It is noted that the Russian market is not completely ready for innovative products that have been intensively developed recently. To ensure universal promotion of new products, it is necessary to use a system of product standardization, improve staff skills, and increase consumer literacy. The problem is that many innovative products are developed abroad and enter the Russian market as a result of foreign investment in the Russian timber industry. The production of composite structural wood materials is due to the fact that in some regions of the world there is a large proportion of low-quality wood raw materials, which cannot be used in industry in the form of balances, technological raw materials and firewood. Innovative technologies make it possible to obtain construction and structural materials from low-quality wood raw materials, in which there are no shortcomings of solid wood. New structural wood materials fill specific market niches, leading to deeper market differentiation. The price factor largely determines the demand for innovative products in the domestic market, otherwise, excess volumes of products are exported to foreign markets.
Keywords: innovative products, market, forest industry.