Periodical printed edition (journal)
Registration certificate PI No. FS 77-79357 dated 16.10.2020 (previously PI No. FS 77 - 66379 dated 14.07.2016 and PI No. FS 77-54416 dated 10.06.2013)
Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies Named after G.F. Morozov
INNOVATIONS IN FOREST SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Aleshin I.V. METHODOLOGY OF TRANSITION TO A SINGLE TECHNOLOGY OF FOREST MANAGEMENT WORKS
Abstract: the article considers the project of creating a unified approach to forest management on the example of the development of the FSBI "Roslesinforg".
Keywords: forest inventory, unified approach, preparatory stage, PARM of the taxator, desk processing.
Borovikov R.G., Shceblykin P.N., Solyony V.A. IMPROVEMENT OF MECHANICAL DRIVES OF TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT
Abstract: At the present stage of scientific and technological progress, issues of increasing the durability of technological machines and equipment, which must have high reliability, safety, high productivity, high efficiency and low metal consumption, are becoming increasingly important.
Currently used technological machines operate under severe operating conditions and are often subject to overloads, which contribute to significant dynamic loads and negatively affect the operation. These include machines with active drive of the working body.
The reliability and performance of technological machines and largely depend on the perfection of overload protection. However, the safety devices used to protect the machine from overloads in the mechanical drive do not work reliably enough, i.e. they do not fully provide adequate protection of the working bodies and the drive from the resulting overloads.
Improvement of protective devices of technological machines and equipment built directly into the drive is limited by the lack of a sufficient theoretical basis for calculating their dynamic load and the lack of new developments that would improve the quality of protection of machines from overloads. Therefore, the solution of issues related to improving the quality of protection of mechanical transmissions from overloads is an urgent task.
Keywords: safety device, dynamic loads, elastic element, stiffness, damping.
Galdina T.E., Zhilenkova E.S. SIBERIAN LARCH CULTURE IN FOREST STEPPE AND STEPPE
Abstract: The article presents the results of a survey of Siberian larch crops growing in forest-steppe and steppe conditions. It is noted that the characteristics of the growth of Siberian larch in the steppe and forest-steppe determine the hydrothermal coefficient of the growing conditions. The introduction of Siberian larch into forest cultures of the steppe and forest-steppe will significantly enrich the species composition of plantations, increase productivity and protective functions.
Keywords: Siberian larch, productivity, safety, introduction into the forest-steppe, introduction into the steppe, hydrothermal coefficient of growth conditions.
Goptarev S.M., Morkovin V.A., Popov N.S. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPORARY TIMBER HIGHWAYS
Abstract: Road service logging company carries out works on both the maintainance and the repair of the roads of permanent action and complex of works on construction, maintenance, repair and elimination of temporary roads. Volumes of works on construction, maintenance, repair, and elimination of temporary logging roads depend on the parameters of a railway in the base of forest resources, climatic conditions and are subject to a calendar plan of timber extraction from the cutting area. The article presents analytical dependencies, which allow to calculate the volumes of works in construction, maintenance, clearing of temporary logging roads and on their basis to determine the structure of road service logging company, configure the need in material and labor resources.
Keywords: temporary roads, amount of works, construction, repair, maintenance, removal of temporary logging roads, road service logging company.
Evtushenko N.A., Evlakov P.M., Fedorova O.A. NANOPARTICLES COPPER OXIDE AND SILVER IN THE TECHNOLOGY OF CLONAL MICROPROPAGATION OF POPLAR 'PYRAMIDAL`NO- OSOKOREVIY KAMYSHINSKIY'
Abstract:The results on the use of nanoparticles of copper oxide (5-40 nm) and silver (10-30 nm) in the technology of clonal micropropagation of poplar "Pyramidal`no - osokoreviy Kamyshinsky" are presented. The positive effect of using nanoparticles at the stages of introduction into in vitro culture and transfer of plants to greenhouse conditions has been noted. The use of nanoparticles at the stage of introduction into in vitro culture reduces the infection of explants by 15-25%, and also increases their morphogenic potential. The use of colloidal solutions of CuO and Ag nanoparticles at the step of transferring poplar microplants to greenhouses reduces the number of plants infected with phytopathogens, and also increases their survival rate by 5-30%.
Keywords: nanoparticles, clonal micropropagation, poplar, copper oxide, silver, explant, nutrient medium, explants, bud, shoot, root, BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), viability.
Korsikov A.S. EXPERIENCE OF APPLICATION OF A FIELD ARM OF A TAXIATOR IN THE PERFORMANCE OF WORKS ON TAXING FOREST IN 2019-2020
Abstract: The article discusses the issues of practical application of the PARM taxator at the work sites of the branch of FGBU "Roslesinforg" "Zaplesproekt".
Keywords: mobile application, taxation, field work, PARM of the taxator.
Kulakov E. E., Vorobyova E.A., Sivolapov V.A. APPLICATION OF DNA ANALYSIS FOR THE PURPOSE OF GENETIC CERTIFICATION OF THE MAIN FOREST-FORMING BREEDS
Abstract: Genetic certification is based on the analysis of highly polymorphic regions of the Quércus róbur genome. A set of markers is proposed for each region, which allows for the certification of populations and forms within the species. The gene pool of a population is documented in the form of formulas that reflect the composition of alleles in individual loci of the genome and QR code. The new principle of compiling and recording a molecular genetics formula is based on the identification of DNA identification markers using SSR analysis of DNA polymorphism, covering most of the plant genomes and suitable for genetic certification of poorly studied plant species. The new recording method contains complete information about the identification molecular marker, including the type of plant, the type of molecular marker, and the size of the typical and unique allele.
Keywords: Quércus róbur, genetic certification, SSR analysis.
Mikhailova M.I. FEATURES OF GROWTH AND STATE OF STEPPE ECOTYPES OF SCOTS PINE IN EXPERIMENTAL GEOGRAPHICAL CULTURES AT THE STUPINO TEST SITE IN THE VORONEZH REGION
Abstract: The article analyzes the indicators that characterize the growth and vital state of steppe ecotypes of Scots pine in geographical cultures at the stupinskoe pole landfill in the Voronezh region, obtained in 2019 on the basis of taxation indicators of plantings on temporary test areas. Currently, pine forests play an important role in the overall strategy of sustainable and expanded forest reproduction. The current state of boreal forests, including pine forests, is of concern to state leaders, practitioners, scientists, and the progressive public not only in Russia, but also in many European countries. Therefore, the problems of effective restoration and increasing the sustainability of pine forests are of particular relevance and international significance. The study of the growth and condition of geographical crops is important in solving the problems of sustainable artificial reforestation in Russia and abroad. The best ecotypes can be used as a basis for population selection, and their offspring can be used to obtain stable seed yields with improved properties, to create stable and highly productive plantings in specific conditions of the pine growing area. All these circumstances determine the relevance of the chosen research topic.
Keywords: Scots pine, geographical cultures, taxation indicators of growth, state of life.
Morkovina S.S., Sysoev M.O. DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE INFRASTRUCTURE ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VORONEZH REGION
Abstract: Modern requirements to high-tech industries and production of goods capable of competing in the market require the creation of a local association, entrepreneurs, scientists and authorities. The proximity of the creators of "intellectual capital", "technological resources" and business is crucial to the success of innovation activities, since scientific, business and government activities need to be coordinated as much as possible. Therefore, a rational approach to innovation development within a region would be to bring together all innovation actors. The result of the research was an analysis of Voronezh Region's innovation infrastructure and recommendations for improving the innovation environment.
Keywords: innovation, innovative activity, innovative infrastructure, regional economy.
Stonozhenko L.V., Zhirnova K.A. SYNCHRONIZATION OF GROUND-BASED AND REMOTE METHODS FOR STUDYING FOREST STANDS
Abstract: The article discusses the introduction of aerospace tools and methods. Solving issues related to the development of deciphered features, identifying relationships that allow you to identify the taxation indicators of plantings by remote methods is an urgent task. We made a comparative assessment of the capabilities of ground-based eye-tracking and tree-based inventory, shooting from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in terms of determining the criteria for dividing a forest area into homogeneous areas (allotment). Relationships between taxational and morphological indicators were identified and equations of correlation between crown and trunk sizes were obtained. The possibility of using individual tree inventory data to check the accuracy of determining the characteristics of an orthophotoplan for a forested area was evaluated. Thanks to aerospace methods, information support necessary for the organization of forestry has been created.
Keywords: Forest taxation unit, Czech Flield Map technology, eye taxation, decoded signs, aerial photography.
Tsarev A.P., Tsarev V.A., Tsareva R.P. SELECTION OF NEW POPLAR HYBRIDS FOR PLANTATION AND PROTECTIVE AFFORESTATION IN THE CENTRAL CHENROZEM REGION
Abstract: The results of 45 years of work on hybridization of white and eupopulus poplars in the All-Russian Research Institute of Forest Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology are presented. In total, more than 730 variants of crosses were carried out; about 40 thousand seedlings were obtained; and after 2 years of studying them at a breeding nursery, several hundred hybrids were selected for further testing, from which two long-term collections and three variety testing sites were created. To date, after years of testing several dozen promising hybrids have been selected. For six of the tested hybrids in 2016-2020 patents and author's certificates of the State Commission for Variety Testing were obtained. These are new varieties of poplars: ‘Bolide’, ‘Veduga’, ‘Steppe Lada’, ‘Breeze’, ‘Surprise’ and ‘Belar’. Their taxation indices at the age of 15 years were high: the survival was 93-98 %, the average height was from 11.7 to 16.5 m, the average diameter was from 20 to 31 cm, and the average trunk volume was from 0.19 to 0.46 m3. They can be recommended for massive, protective and reclamation plantations, and a number of them can be recommended for greenery landscaping, roadside and riverside shelter belts, as well as for afforestation of ravines, dumps, slide-rocks and other inconveniences.
Keywords: poplar, hybridization, new hybrids, varieties, plantation and protective afforestation, state patents, growth, survival.
Tsarev V.A., Tsareva R.P, Lenchenkova O.Yu. RESULTS OF ASPEN ECOTYPES TESTING IN THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION
Abstract: It is noted that Aspen, or trembling poplar (Populus tremula L.), is one of the most widespread and important forest-forming species in Russia. However, despite the high technological quality and variety of applications of aspen wood in the national economy, its widespread use is limited due to the mass destruction of trunks by the age of economic exploitability by core rot (up to 60-90%) caused by fungi Fomes igniarius Fr. and Fellinus tremula Bond., and therefore the low yield of economic valuable wood. Hence, the main direction of breeding of this species is not only the selection of highly productive, but also resistant to phytopathogens forms of aspen. The results of 40-year testing of 11 aspen ecotypes, including 10 ecotypes of P. tremula L., selected in the natural forests of the Voronezh, Belgorod, Kursk, and Kostroma regions and one ecotype of American aspen (P. tremuloides L.) introduced from Latvia, are presented. In the age of 41 years, the best growth and productivity (ranks 1-5) were aspens X1 and X2 from the Botanical garden of the Voronezh State University, Savalskaya aspen, Oboyanskaya aspen and American aspen from Latvia (height 30.4-32.3 m; diameter – 38.5-49.7 cm; trunk volume – 1.35-2.30 m3). Up to 41 years of age, no fruit bodies were found on the trunks of all tested aspens. Four of the tested aspen clones (X1, X2, Oboyan clone No. 27, and American) were later introduced as parent pairs in hybridization.
Keywords: aspen, ecotypes, selection, long-term testing, growth, productivity, resistance to phytopathogens.
Tsareva R.P., Tsarev V.A., Miligula E.N. INTRODUCTION OF EURAMERICAN POPLAR CULTIVARS IN PROTECTIVE FOREST STANDS OF THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION
Abstract: It is noted that the main species for protective forest stands in the Central Chernozem Region are considered to be Common oak, pine, birch, and other species. Poplar was rarely used. But to 1980, the share of poplar in protective forest stands reached 32 %. Recently black euramerican poplars have been introduced into protective forest shelter belts. In this issue the results of variety testing of introduced euramerican black poplars (33 clones were tested) are presented. The best genotypes in terms of growth energy, survival, and productivity are selected. The following euramerican spontaneous hybrids can be recommended for protective forest stands in the region: ‘Brabantica’, ‘Vernirubens’, ‘Gelrika’, ‘Caroline’, ‘Marilandica’, ‘Regenerata’, ‘Robusta’, ‘Serotina’. At the age of 40, their survival was 54.2-95.8 %, the average height varied from 30.7 to 37.0 m, the diameter – from 36.5 to 52.9 cm, the trunk volume – from 1.71 to 3.02 m3. The wood stock of these poplars at the age of 40 years was 500-1 320 m3/ha, the average increments were 17.1-33.0 m3/ha per year. In the control (local black poplar) these indices were significantly lower: survival of 29 %, height of 32 m, diameter of 43 cm, trunk volume of 1.70 m3, wood stock of 248 m3/ha, average increment of 6.2 m3/ha per year.
Keywords: poplar, euramerican cultivars, introduction, variety testing, protective forest stands.
ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS IN MODERN FORESTRY
Azarova A.N., Shanin I.I. SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF SYSTEM APPROACH
Abstract: This scientific article examines, studies and analyzes the methodology of the systems approach. The investigated commercial organization engaged in the production and sale of products, like any other organization, is an open system, which implies interaction with the external environment. From the external environment, a commercial organization receives such elements for its internal environment as information, people, raw materials, capital, resources. These elements are called “inputs”. In the course of its activity, the enterprise, thanks to modern technologies, transforms part of the obtained elements into goods and services, which is already called the "outputs" of the enterprise. The study concluded that the activities of the analyzed commercial organization and its organizational system consist of three functions: "input - transformation - output". In the study of the "Systems Approach" method, the components of "output", goods and services are initially analyzed. Costs for the production of services, terms, prices are analyzed. Further, the parameters of "input", the need for resources and their quantity are studied separately. Within the framework of a systematic approach, the tasks that need to be solved are formulated as accurately as possible and it is determined what conditions and requirements the methods should meet, the application of which will lead to the solution of the task.
Keywords: Research, systems approach, external environment, profit, efficiency.
Bystritskaya E.Yu., Shanin I.I. METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC DATA OF BUSINESS ENTITIES
Abstract: The article examines approaches to the analysis of economic data in various business entities, as well as the results of the necessary calculations. One of the methods selected and allowing to quantify certain economic processes is the measurement method, the accuracy of which depends on the set of economic data analysis required to study the degree of influence of their dependence. The same value in different units of measurement can give different deviation (cumulative deviation) of the analyzed data. This determines the relevance of the selected research topic. The aim of the work is to study the measurement method as an economic and financial research method, by carrying out the necessary economic calculations, to find the numerical value of the analyzed data by means of a measuring unit. The results of collecting and generalizing the obtained economic data allow us to act as an information base for making management decisions. The application of the approach to data analysis and management decision-making is carried out on the basis of modeling, using a selected intuitive (implicit) or quantitative (explicit) economic model. On the basis of this approach, the collection of exactly those necessary economic data that are used when applying a selected model is carried out.
Keywords: Analysis, economic data, measurement units, economic processes, measurement method.
Vertakova Yu.V., Esenkova G.A., Evchenko A.V. STATE AND PRIORITIES OF DIGITALIZATION OF RUSSIAN FORESTRY IN THE CONTEXT OF INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY
Abstract: In the changing conditions of institutional socio-economic transformation, ensuring the required maximum completeness and degree of use of relevant information about the state and dynamics of the country's forest Fund (in General and by region), selection and implementation of priority innovation and investment projects for the balanced development of Russian forestry no longer seem feasible without solving such important national economic tasks, as a system improvement of the extensive complex of works performed on administrative and legal support of the implemented program and strategic measures, attracting massive investments in the forest and related sectors of the national economy, and forming up – to-date forest plans in the regions-subjects of the Federation. The new program of digitalization of Russian forestry is based on combining (taking into account the best achievements of foreign experience and productive elements of domestic practice) and linking with the recommendations made by the authors of the implemented provisions of individual program-strategic (the State program «Development of forestry», the Strategy for the development of the Russian forest complex until 2030, etc.) and separate regulatory documents (such as the Procedure for maintaining the state forest register, Procedure for state forest inventory) in the field of creation and application of modern digital technologies and new digital products in forest management, afforestation and forest management. Databases collected and processed using end-to-end digital technologies that combine materials from traditional forest management and state forest inventory can become the information and communication basis for integrating measures to improve the state forest management system.
The comprehensive study has allowed combining productive elements of domestic practice and foreign experience and, on this basis, identifying key areas for effective development of the Russian system of forest management, afforestation, and forest management. As a result, the medium-term development of wood processing, wood chemical industry, agricultural production and other business activities carried out on the territory of the forest Fund will allow the regions-subjects of the Russian Federation to significantly expand and modernize the production, social and transport infrastructure, which will help attract labor resources, increase the efficiency of using existing forests and breeding new ones.
Keywords: digital transformation, forest industry, end-to-end digital technologies, forestry digitalization program.
Vorobyov Yu.N., Alferova N.Yu. PRIORITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE MECHANISM OF FOREST MANAGEMENT
Abstract: The article is devoted to forest management as the main function of state management in the field of protection and ensuring the rational use of forests. State regulation of forest relations is of great importance for the protection of forests. Forest management is considered in the article as a practical activity, the legislation in this area is analyzed, the main attention is paid to the Forest Code of the Russian Federation. The paper also investigated the relationship between forest management and state forest inventory, determined the content of forest management, investigated the features of the functioning of the forest management mechanism, identified problem areas in the regulation of forest relations, presented the dynamics of government spending on forest management activities, identified priorities in the development of a modern forest management mechanism. The authors identified trends in the development of forestry legislation, provided suggestions for its improvement, at the end of the article there are conclusions on the research topic.
Keywords: forest fund, forest management, taxation, budget subventions.
Demchenko A.A., Esenkova G.A., Aldokhina T.P. CIRCULAR ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: TOWARDS ECOLOGIZATION AND IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF SECONDARY RESOURCES USE
Abstract: In the beginning of XXI century the most important factor of transition to sustainable development has been the introduction of resource-saving technologies in the long term ensuring the production of environmentally safe high-quality products with optimal energy and material consumption, further improvement of existing technologies, the development and rapid implementation of innovative resource-saving technology.
The current long-term conceptual and program-strategic documents on the sustainable development of the Russian Federation and its regions, branches and sectors of the national economy always provide for the introduction and expansion of the scope of the closed-loop economy. The economy is expected to be modernized through innovative technologies, support for individual industries, and programs for the country's environmental development.
In this study, the authors analyze the processes of forming a circular economy as part of a gradual transition to a modern version of sustainable socio-ecological and economic development. The role of the circular economy in resource saving, waste minimization and reduction of pressure on the environment while achieving significant socio-economic results is revealed.
Keywords: socio-eco-economic system, sustainable development, circular economy, resource conservation.
Jude Ahmed Ghanem, Tretyakova L.A., Azarova N.A. THE ROLE OF HIGH-TECH ENTERPRISES OF THE TIMBER INDUSTRY IN INCREASING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY
Abstract: The problem of increasing labor productivity and production efficiency is justified by the need to create new high-tech and high-performance jobs at enterprises of leading industries, which includes the timber industry. The timber industry enterprises are a part of the leading branches of the national economy ensuring the national security, forming the competitiveness of the country in the global world market, called to implement the strategic goals of the new state economic policy: innovative economic reform. Due to the fact that the competitiveness of high-tech enterprises of the timber industry complex is directly determined by labor productivity, the research of the specifics of forming the labor productivity of high-tech enterprises of the timber industry complex acquires a special urgency. The basis of labor productivity growth is the creation of high productive jobs. High-tech jobs will be created on the basis of innovative machine tools and "smart" timber industries.
Keywords: timber industry complex, high-tech enterprises, high-performance workplaces, labor productivity.
Marchuk I.I. STATE AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF ENTERPRISES OF THE FOREST INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE CENTRAL FEDERAL DISTRICT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Abstract: The forestry complex is a dynamically developing branch of the Russian economy, which includes three blocks with a large resource potential: forestry, logging production, woodworking. Despite the increase in the number of enterprises operating in the forestry complex, the state of their development remains at a low level. First of all, this is due to the difficult state of the forestry industry, in conditions of high competition with foreign enterprises, it must ensure the restoration of used resources, ensure an increase in production volumes, and also reduce the environmental load on the environment. Analysis of the work of the enterprises of the forestry complex of the Central Federal District made it possible to identify problems that hinder the stable development of these enterprises. The legal framework, outdated fixed assets, low degree of raw materials processing, lack of investment and innovation, outdated timber processing technologies contribute to ineffective development of forestry enterprises, as well as a low level of reforestation, which entails depletion of forest resources and, accordingly, a decrease in some indicators of forestry enterprises complex. In such a situation, enterprises need government support. In turn, to ensure sustainable development, the state has developed mechanisms to support forestry enterprises.
Keywords: forestry complex, forest, forestry, timber industry, enterprises, development trends.
Petrachevsky Y. L., Plakhotnikova M.A. FEATURES OF EMPLOYEES ' LABOR ACTIVITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF REMOTE WORK
Abstract: In connection with the ongoing changes in the socio-economic environment, remote work has become a common phenomenon. When an employee performs their work functions on the condition of remote or remote work, some difficulties and unclear situations arise that require an unambiguous interpretation. In the beginning of XXI century the most important factor of transition to sustainable development has been the introduction of resource-saving technologies in the long term ensuring the production of environmentally safe high-quality products with optimal energy and material consumption, further improvement of existing technologies, the development and rapid implementation of innovative resource-saving technology.
Keywords: remote work, employee, organization, human resources Department, labor relations.
Rafailov M.K., Morkovina S.S. BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE ECONOMIC MODEL OF STRATEGIC PLANNING OF THE FORESTRY COMPLEX
Abstract: Strategic planning takes an important place in the management of industries and complexes of modern Russia. The forestry complex is no exception against the background of the existing management system and the growing imbalance in the development of industries in its composition. The paper analyzes the main reasons restraining the development of the forestry complex in Russia for the purposes of strategic planning.
The main priority areas requiring priority additional financial investments have been identified. Economic measures are proposed to stimulate tenants to improve the efficiency of the use of forest resources in leased forest areas.
A methodological approach to substantiating additional financial resources in order to cover the budget deficit is considered. With the help of functional-cost analysis, it was determined that the basis of additional financing is the receipt of payments for the use of forests.
The calculation of the macroeconomic effect of the proposed economic measures is carried out and the basic parameters of the economic model of strategic planning of the forestry complex are determined.
Keywords: parameters of the economic model, forestry complex, strategic planning, economic measures.
Rafailov M. K., Topcheev A.N. THE PARETO RULE IN THE STRATEGIC PLANNING OF THE FORESTRY COMPLEX
Abstract: The paper presents the research results of the revealed principles of the Pareto rule in the distribution of income in the financial and economic system of the forestry complex. It is noted that 20 percent of the leased forest land area forms 80 percent of the revenues of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation from payments for forest use. At the same time, 80 percent of the total expenses for forest management are carried out on the remaining territories of the forest fund lands not leased. Based on the results of the empirical study, the main reasons and factors underlying this paradigm of forest income distribution in the noted ratio of 20/80 are formulated. Possible methodological approaches are formulated aimed at increasing the efficiency of the forestry complex in the current economic conditions and restrictions in the distribution of income.
Keywords: Pareto rule, uneven distribution of income, forestry complex, strategic planning.
Sibiryatkin E.V. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE RESULTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Abstract: The work reveals the legal and economic assessment of the results of intellectual property, gives the classification of intellectual property by type, gives the factors that affect the value of intangible assets.
Keywords: intellectual value, intangible assets, objects, types, assessment methods.
Stepanova Yu.N., Kuznecov S.A. NEW TRENDS IN HR MANAGEMENT DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
Abstract: Today, under the new technological realities, digital technologies and innovations are an integral part of the development of the economic system. As a result, the problem of adapting the personnel management process is urgent in the form of applying new trends and creating new organizational structures for personnel management. The existing approaches to personnel management no longer always correspond to the new architecture, and, therefore, hinder the development of economic entities. As practice and analysis of statistical data show, new trends and modern technologies of personnel management are partially applied only at the stage of personnel training, and the remaining stages of management are usually based on classical and basic approaches.
This article is devoted to the need to form a personnel management system, reflecting at each stage of the management impact the impact of the new technological order on the competence of employees.
Forming a personnel management system based on new digital technologies and innovations, it is necessary to pay due attention to the functionality of monitoring the skills and competencies of employees in accordance with the needs of the market, including the availability of technical knowledge, that is, the ability to work effectively with software, programming, general digital literacy, and to promote life time learning ideas as ideas of continuous independent education.
Keywords: management, personnel management, innovation, human resources, digital technologies.
Shcherbakov D.B., Evchenko A.V. FORMATION AND REGULATION OF THE GREEN ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Abstract: The functioning of the green economy as a new material-producing sector of modern socio-eco-economic systems largely remain unresolved (sometimes not stated), and sustainable development of States and regions in an increasingly unstable external environment seems fundamentally unworkable. In fact, in the context of ensuring sustainable development, both the promising opportunities of the green economy and the problems associated with their practical implementation are still very controversial, which actualizes, first of all, the need for theoretical study and consolidation of these issues in economic and management science and, subsequently, in practice. Taking as object of study the processes of formation and diversification of the green economy, the authors examine various aspects of their relationships and interaction with the sustainability of socio-ecological-economic development (including and arising disputes), variations of interpretations of «green economy» as a scientific definition, the transformation of the meaning of concepts and models of sustainable development of modern states and regions.
Keywords: green economy, sustainable development, terminological pluralism, state economic policy, socio-ecological and economic system.
Elsaed Ahmed Ayman Elsaed Reda, Yakovleva E.A. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AND INTELLIGENT FOREST BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Abstract: The article deals with the problems and prospects of creating an industry information system, which is necessary to optimize information flows and reduce costs for obtaining and exchanging information. To improve the validity and validity of management decisions, it is necessary to control the reliability and consistency of data from a variety of sources, reduce paperwork and reduce the time of execution of orders. Digital technologies contribute to the accuracy of forest fund data and ensure transparency of the forest market and business. Formation of a single digital space in the forest industry involves the use of established standards of information, technology and methods of intelligent management. Centralization of data on forest resources will increase the efficiency and availability of data for the effective maintenance of the State Forest Register, reduce labor costs for the provision of state services to the forest business, the formation and submission of reports. Not only state forest management bodies are interested in the development of digital technologies, but also users of forest resources and processors of wood resources. The processes of forest digitalization will provide planning of perspective forest use, design of forest management activities, development of a transparent mechanism for providing forest areas through public tenders, control of forest infrastructure modernization.
Keywords: digital technology, management, forest business.
Yakovlev A.V., Bukhonova N.M., Kalitina E.O. IMPROVEMENT OF THE TRANSPORTATION LOGISTICS SYSTEM OF THE ENTERPRISE ON THE EXAMPLE OF LLC HOLDING COMPANY «MEBEL СHERNOZEMYA»
Abstract: The article presents an analysis of the existing transport logistics system of LLC HC "Mebel Chernozemya". Identified problems in the transport system of the enterprise that have a direct impact on its development. The main problems faced by the company were also identified and justified. Such problems are the inability to constantly monitor and track the vehicle, which interferes with the efficiency of transportation. Also, a significant problem is the irrational determination of the transportation route, which leads to significant transport costs. In order to improve the transport system of LLC HC Mebel Chernozemya, it is recommended to implement a project for implementing the SCOUT–PLATFORM transport monitoring system based on GLONASS satellite navigation systems, together with fuel level sensors, which will eliminate the problem of the need for operational planning of the furniture company's production activities and increase the level of control over the car fleet.
Keywords: transport system, logistics system, efficiency.
INNOVATIVE FORMS OF TRAINING ORGANIZATION IN FOREST EDUCATION
Meshcheriakova A.A., Gribanov A.A., Volkova K.O. INFORMATION MODELING OF THE BOOK ACCOUNTING MODULE IN THE LIBRARY
Abstract: The article discusses methodologies that allow you to describe and visually represent various business processes, their study and getting answers to questions of interest. The increase in the volume and structural complexity of the stored data, the expansion of the circle of users of information systems have led to the widespread use of the most convenient and relatively easy to understand relational (tabular) database management systems (DBMS). To provide simultaneous access to the data of multiple users, often located far enough from each other and from the storage location of the databases, network multi-user versions of databases (DB) based on a relational structure have been created. In one way or another, they solve specific problems of parallel processes, data integrity (correctness) and security, as well as access authorization.
Keywords: design, information model, chart.
Serikov M.T., Vodolazhskiy A.N., Neronova T.A. FEATURES OF TRAINING OF THE FUTURE TAXATOR IN THE CONDITIONS OF ADDITIONAL EDUCATION OF CHILDREN
Abstract: Some features of teaching children aged 11-14 years the basics of forest inventory based on the experience gained in conducting vocational guidance for schoolchildren and participation in the development of the basic level of the additional educational program "School forestry" are revealed. The content of teaching, developmental and educational tasks of teaching is stated. Examples of the most interesting fragments of the content of this academic discipline are given, the use of which can ensure the creativity and innovative nature of education in the context of additional education for children, increase the effectiveness of vocational guidance of students, help educate them conscious responsibility for establishing harmonious interaction between nature and society, for realizing oneself as personality, the formation of moral, ethical, moral, aesthetic principles of respect for nature, forest.
Keywords: basics of forest inventory, additional educational program, forest management, forest appraiser engineer, amazing objects of forest taxation.
Khodosova N.A., Zayac V.V., Strelnikova O.Yu. FEATURES OF USING ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOK AND LABORATORY PRACTICE ON CHEMISTRY
Abstract: The article discusses the features of using an electronic textbook and an electronic laboratory practice in teaching the discipline «Chemistry». The possibility of introducing this electronic resource into educational activities, adapted for educational organizations of the forest profile is considered. When using electronic manuals, the basic principles of teaching are achieved: visibility, systematicity and consistency, accessibility, scientific character, self-education, connection between theory and practice. The complex use of an electronic textbook, laboratory practice and test control on all studied topics activates the interest and attention of students, contributes to better memorization of the material.
Keywords: electronic textbook, information technology, interactivity, didactic principle of visibility, self-study.
FOREST INDUSTRY, MECHANIZATION OF THE FOREST COMPLEX AND INNOVATIONS IN THE TIMBER INDUSTRY
Abramov V.V., Troyanov I.N., Bukhtoyarov L.D. IMPROVEMENT OF CUTTING CUTTING OPERATIONS IN AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR MAKING OPTIMAL DESIGN DECISIONS
Abstract: The article presents a new comprehensive three-level concept for evaluating design solutions for performing processing operations in non-clear cuttings, which is characterized by the ability to simultaneously predict energy costs, technical and economic results and silvicultural and environmental consequences for the forest environment. To implement this concept, the structure of a three-level automated system was proposed to improve the efficiency of chainsaws in non-clear cuttings by substantiating the optimal technology and organization of labor, a set of gasoline-powered tools, a method and parameters for the development of apiaries. At the first level, based on the results of forecasting on the basis of the "Tree cutting process" micromodel of the indicator of specific energy consumption, an optimal set of gasoline engine tools is substantiated. At the second level, based on the results of forecasting on the basis of the “Processing operations” micromodel of the indicator of specific reduced energy consumption, the substantiation of the optimal technology for performing processing operations is performed. At the third level, based on the results of forecasting on the basis of the Lesoseka micromodel, the total costs of processing operations, forestry damage from technological non-producing areas, damage to trees and undergrowth, as well as the calculation on their basis of a generalized quality indicator, it is supposed to substantiate the optimal method and parameters of apiary development. Currently, it has been successfully implemented in the Moscow and Tambov regions. The proposed approaches to improve the processing operations of logging operations allow reducing the specific and specific-reduced energy consumption by 11.8% and 21.2%, respectively; total direct manufacturing costs by 7%; and also to reduce forestry and ecological damage to 11%.
Keywords: processing operations of logging operations, non-clearcutting, non-clearcutting types of felling, methods and parameters of apiary development.
Gribanov A.A., Meshcheriakova A.A., Pyatkova Yu.A. IDENTIFICATION OF DEFECTS WOOD
Abstract: The article discusses the solution to the problem of identifying wood defects as amorphous objects, which comes down to combining individual bits of raster information of the scanning camera into groups of fragments of defects and establishing signs that ensure their differentiation among themselves with the determination of quantitative characteristics that characterize each individual fragment, in order to subsequent classification. To solve the problem of finding the connectivity of fragments of lumber flaws, an algorithm was used, for which an abstract model of an amorphous "spot" was developed, divided into cells by imposing a grid on it. This algorithm will allow to recognize and identify such defects in lumber as knot, crack, rot and wane. The data obtained in this way can be used for automatic cutting of defects in lumber with subsequent splicing along the length.
Keywords: identification, wood defects, model, algorithm, scanning.
Druchinin D.Yu., Agupov E.V. MECHANIZATION OF WORKS ON REMOVAL OF UNWANTED VEGETATION WHEN CULTIVATION OF FOREST CROPS
Abstract: The maintenance of established forest stands is a fundamental activity in forestry. When growing forest plantations, an important agrotechnical method is to carry out thinning, creation of favorable conditions for the growth and development of woody plants of the main species and the removal of unwanted tree and shrubbery plantings. One of the types of thinning is clarification, which is carried out in young stands up to 10 years of age in the presence of the danger of suppression the created stands.
To mechanize this technological operation, brush cutters are used with various working tools in the form of knives, saws, milling cutters or chains with an active and passive drive. The article analyzes the means of mechanization of forest thinning from the point of view of design and the principle of operation of their working tools. It has been established that the used cutters and circular saws do not always work effectively in the conditions of creating forest plantations in clearings. The most promising for equipping hedge trimmers, provided that the energy consumption of the process of impact cutting of overgrowth is reduced, flexible inertial-chopping working tools in the form of chains or cables, which have the ability to deviate from insuperable obstacles, are the most promising.
Keywords: forestry, forest crops, unwanted tree and shrubbery plantings, thinning, clarification, brush cutter, flexible working body.
Zuzukin N.V., Ivanovsky V.P. DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF WOODWORKING EQUIPMENT FOR SOFT WOOD
Abstract: This paper deals with the development and construction of wood-cutting equipment for soft wood. It is solved by improving existing processes, equipment and tools based on innovations that will generally improve the quality of wood products. Diagrams of softwood deformations under compression for various temperatures were constructed, as well as a thermomechanical curve of softwood.
Keywords: Wood-cutting tools, deformation, thermomechanical modeling, soft wood species.
Ivanovskiy V.P., Safarov K.N. DEVOLOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF WOODWORKING EQUIPMENT FOR PROCESSING MODIFIED WOOD
Abstract: The sequence realizations technological operations of cutting and stamp wood of soft breeds is described. Modes of cutting in technological processes and receptions of increase of their efficiency are given. Processes of spinless division it must be carried out according to strictly regulated rules of the receiving stage quality of the processed surfaces and productivity we will. Offer special method of tension of the cutting disc. The vibration damping pad during the cutting process allows you to improve the quality of surface treatment. In stamping processes, it is invaluable to maintain the set temperature, the holding time under pressure and assign the required value of the contact pressure these external factors were identified experimentally.
Keywords: woodworking, wood stamping, wood cutting, processing quality and productivity.
Knyazev A.V., Borodin N.A., Solyony V.A. ANALYSIS OF DESIGNS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTECTION MEANS OF ROTARY FORESTRY MACHINES FROM OVERLOADING
Abstract: Safety couplings and devices that are used to protect digging forestry machines cannot be used, since they are designed to protect forestry machines with low speeds of rotation of their working bodies and drive lines.
An original clutch that can be installed on forestry machines is given in  and is a type of resilient safety clutches. It allows in the driven half-coupling, by installing an elastic element, to reduce short-term dynamic loads, which in turn act throughout the entire normal operation. The presented clutch can only be used in machines with many working bodies, each of which is protected by individual fuses.
Keywords: rotary forestry machines, reloading, safety devices, forest crops, nursery.
Maksimenkov A.I., Вagno O.P. ON THE IMPACT OF CUTTING TOOL PREPARATION ON THE QUALITY OF SAW PRODUCTS IN BELT SAWING
Abstract: the main drawback of circular sawing machines is the presence of broken teeth in the cut. In case of vibrations, violation of the saw plane, mismatch of the feed direction with the saw planes, and rebasing, these teeth spoil the processing surface. Belt sawing allows you to ensure high quality of lumber on the roughness of their surface at high feed rates; increase productivity by 1.5-2 times due to mechanization and automation of technological operations. One of the most important advantages of band saws is the small width of the cut, which is 1.5-2 times smaller than that of the sawmill; the small thickness of the saw ensures low consumption of wood in sawdust and high volume output of lumber. Sawing wood on band saws, in the vast majority of cases, is characterized by face cutting. Of the 3 forms of chip formation when cutting into the end, for band saws, the most characteristic is the formation of the chip element by chipping it with the stratification of wood along the bottom of the cut. The quality of the surface, in terms of its roughness, in addition to the formation of the chip element, is affected by its location in the interdental space, the presence and degree of compression and transportation of the chip element. The quality of the surface, in terms of its roughness, in addition to the formation of the chip element, is affected by its location in the interdental space, the presence and degree of compression and transportation of the chip element. As a result of studies of the initial conditions for the development of the teeth sharpening scheme, the orientation of the active elements of the blade relative to the middle plane of the saw can be identified as the main ones.
Keywords: sawmilling, band saw, chip formation, surface quality, preparation of cutting tools.
Malyukov S.V., Aksenov A.A., Malyukova M.A. ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH MILLING AND THROWING WORKING BODIES OF DIGGING MACHINES
Abstract: The most widespread are the most efficient canal diggers and canal cleaners with rotary working bodies (rotors, cutters). The existing tendency to increase the unit capacity of continuous earthmoving machines makes it possible to use high-performance milling-throwing working bodies in the designs of ditch diggers, which provide different speeds of digging and transporting soil, which expands the field of application of such machines according to technological and soil conditions. The existing structures of canal diggers satisfy only the requirements of land reclamation construction and practically cannot be effectively used for the formation of ditches, for example, according to the conditions for transporting the excavated soil. At the same time, an analysis of the transverse profiles and parameters of canals up to one and a half meters deep, ditches and drainage ditches, as well as the production and technological requirements for machines for these areas of construction shows the identity of many elements. Analysis of design solutions and research results shows the possibility of creating milling-throwing ditch diggers, including for work in frozen soils. At the same time, a number of issues of interaction between cutters and throwers have not been studied enough. The process of cutting soils with cutters with a variable cutting radius, providing the formation of a transverse profile of drainage systems, has not been practically studied. There is no research on the working bodies of ditch diggers for the development of frozen soils.
Keywords: earthmoving machines, milling and throwing tools, soil throwing.
Razinkov E.M., Savinkov M.A. ABOUT REVIEW OF SOME TEST METHODS OF WOOD-BASED PANELS
Abstract: Wood-shaving (DSTP) and wood-fiber (DVP) plates find broad application in production of furniture, construction. The researches conducted by us have shown. That need for review of number of test methods of plates which are put in the corresponding GOST, such as has ripened: on DVP - GOST 32687-2014; on DSTP - GOST 10635-88 and GOST 23234 - 2009.
IN ACCORDANCE WITH GOST 32687-2014 (appendix G) on "The fiber boards of dry practice revetted with films on the basis of thermosetting polymers" film bond quality with surface of fiber board (DVP) in many respects depend on film bond quality with plate surface, but also on plate skin surface durability. One of the main reasons of insufficient durability of skins of plate is generally premature curing of pitch in these layers. It leads to pitch thermodestruction that promotes decrease in bond quality of wood particles or fibers. Such defect leads to flaking of film from surface of plate entraining at the same time part of skin. Generally this reason is consequence hot pressing of plates in multidaylight presses, and also absence in mechanism multidaylight presses for simultaneous interlocking of platens. Insufficient durability of skin of plate is especially brightly shown when flaking from paper-based laminated plastic plate surface.
Keywords: Plates wood-fiber dry practice, pitch thermodestruction, bond quality.
Storodubtseva T.N., Sazhneva A.S., Solyony V.A. POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF ASPHALT CONCRETE COVERING ON FOREST ROADS OF THE III CATEGORY
Abstract: The study of the possibility of using asphalt concrete coatings in the construction of forest roads is a very relevant direction at this stage, as well as very promising from the point of view of using cellulose-based binders in it. Crack resistance of asphalt concrete pavements is one of the main characteristics of the material and depends on the rheological and strength properties of asphalt concrete. The article is devoted to the quality of roads - one of the eternal problems of Russia. Currently, this problem is actively discussed at all levels of government and worries every one hundred cars and ordinary residents of Russia.
Keywords: crack resistance, asphalt, timber roads, pavement, construction, concrete.
Storodubtseva T.N., Aksomitny A.A., Ashmarova T.S. IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES IN WOOD-POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIAL
Abstract: High-strength composite materials are increasingly used in various fields of industry and technology. One of the main tasks of the research was to improve the thermophysical properties of wood composite material by modeling this process. It was found that the thermal insulation of wood with a protective polymer-sand coating turned out to be comparable to the thermal insulation of wood. When wood waste was used as a filler - shavings, large fragments, thermal insulation of the samples was significant, since heat mainly spreads through the channels between the wood fragments. In wood-polymer composite material, thermal insulation properties are 2 ... 3 times better than those of building materials based on concrete.
Keywords: polymer, wood, thermal insulation, composite materials.
Storodubtseva T.N., Gorkavenko K.Yu., Gegelskaya A.S. TRACK COVERINGS OF TEMPORARY FOREST ROADS WITH USE OF WOOD-FIBERGLASS PRODUCTS COMPOSITE
Abstract: the well-known examples of the use of hardwood in structural elements made of composite materials, in which it is used as a reinforcing filler, for example, fiber-glass composite, are considered. The developed products, special-purpose structural elements made of composite material are intended for partial replacement of traditional reinforced concrete slabs of coatings for temporary timber highways. As a result of their application, the preservation of timber and its cleaning is expected, a decrease, in comparison with reinforced concrete, of the mass, metal content, the use of waste waste from the forest complex, which can be processed into furfural, and then into FAM resin.
Keywords: composites, products, timber roads, timber, slabs.
Tkachev V.V., Knyazev A.V., Venediktova V.S. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF A FOREST SEED SEPARATOR USING A HOLE CLEANING MECHANISM EQUIPPED WITH CYLINDRICAL WORKING BODIES
Abstract: studies of the application of the mechanism for cleaning the holes of the mechanization means used for the pre-sowing treatment of forest seeds, in the designs of which include flat swinging sieves, are presented. In the course of experimental studies on the sorting by fractions of dewatered Siberian larch seeds, the efficiency of the cleaning mechanism, equipped with cylindrical brush working bodies, to remove clogged seeds from the holes of the sieves was proved. At the same time, the influence of the speed and diameters of the gears of the mechanism on the efficiency of the screening process was determined. It was found that at different values of the specific loads on the sieve, an increase in the rotation frequency of the crank shaft of the cleaning mechanism and a decrease in the diameter of the gears of its working bodies due to the qualitative removal of clogged seeds from the holes of the sieves leads to an increase in the efficiency of the sorting process.
Keywords: seeds, cleaning, sorting, mechanism, hole, sieve, fractions, gears, working bodies, efficiency, specific load, extraction completeness, forest cultures.
Tkachev V.V., Borodin N.A., Ashmarova T.S. ABOUT THE PERSPECTIVE DESIGN OF THE SIEVE FOR CLEANING AND SORTING OF FOREST SEEDS
Abstract: the types of flat sieves used by the design of separating machines that carry out pre-sowing treatment of seeds of agricultural and forest crops are considered. Technological processes for separating seeds using sieves with different types of holes are described. The disadvantages of separating seeds using flat swinging sieves are considered. The design solutions used to increase the throughput of the sieves are described. The design of a sieve is proposed, characterized by a low degree of clogging of its holes by seeds and their impurities, the use of which will increase the efficiency of cleaning and sorting of forest seeds.
Keywords: seeds, cleaning, sorting, size, thickness, mechanism, holes, sieve, fractions, separation, hardness, efficiency, clogging, forest crops.
Tkachev V.V., Borodin N.A., Belokopytaya A.S. TO THE ISSUE OF SELECTING THE WORKING BODIES OF THE HOLE CLEANING MECHANISM, THE SECURES OF FOREST SEED SEPARATORS
Abstract: studies of the use of cylindrical working bodies of the mechanism for cleaning openings of flat swinging sieves of forest seeds separators are presented. In the course of the research, the rigidity of the working bodies was determined, which, with an admissible mechanical level of impact on coniferous seeds, due to the removal of stuck seeds from the holes of the sieves, makes it possible to increase the efficiency of the sorting process. Experimental studies have shown that the use of a sieve hole cleaning mechanism equipped with cylindrical brush working bodies, which, along with translational, also rotate through the use of gearing, can be used in the design of flat screen separators that carry out pre-sowing processing of coniferous forest seeds.
Keywords: seeds, cleaning, sorting, mechanism, hole, sieve, fractions, working bodies, separator, rigidity, efficiency, specific load, extraction completeness, forest crops.
Scheblykin P.N., Borovikov R.G., Kiliachenkov N.O. ESTIMATION OF THE OPERATION OF SAFETY DEVICES WITH ELASTIC CLAMP ELEMENTS OF TILLAGE MACHINES WITH ACTIVE WORKING BODIES
Abstract: Reliable operation of forestry soil cultivating cutters in many respects depends on the perfection of their protection against overloads. The safety devices used to protect against overloading of soil tillage mills by torque do not fully provide adequate protection of the working bodies and the drive from the arising overloads, since they have significant dynamic loads, low response accuracy, complicate the design of the machine, lead to premature -changeable failure of its individual parts and assemblies, increase the cost and cost of repairs. The main criterion for the design of high-quality design fuses protecting the drive units of machines in terms of torque is the introduction into their design of such elements that would allow performing several functional capabilities at once.
This article presents the material devoted to the study of the quality of the work of the friction protectors of the working bodies of the milling drum with elastic pressure elements that protect them by torque.
Keywords: reliability, resource, friction element, elastic element, operation, geometrical parameters, moment.
Yudin R.V., Vitkalov I.V. UNIFIED ALGORITHM OF HYDRODYNAMICS OF THE DRIVE OF WORKING BODIES OF FOREST MACHINES
Abstract: The use of quantitative information for technological calculations, which does not take into account the dynamic processes of interaction of working bodies with the subject of work, in the working methods of operations of technological processes of forest protection works, leads, in some cases, to a significant decrease in the reliability of the results. There was therefore a need in the industry to develop dynamic models that took into account the load dynamics of the working bodies and the hydrodynamics of their actuators. It is recommended that the influence of process dynamics be taken into account by the introduction of dynamic coefficients, for the definition of which the formula is proposed. The formulated fundamental approaches to the construction of dynamic modes made it possible to find and build a unified algorithm, the practical significance of which goes beyond the solution of the problem.
Keywords: forestry, working tool, hydraulic drive, hydrodynamics, mechanism.
PROTECTION, REPRODUCTION, AND ECONOMIC USE OF FORESTS. CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF FORESTRY. THE FIGHT AGAINST FOREST FIRES
Besedina A.V., Akopyan G.A. DISTRIBUTION OF THE IPS ACUMINATUS IN THE KRYLOVSKY FORESTRY OF THE BRYANSK REGION
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of the impact of external factors on the state of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) plantations in the protective forests of the Bryansk region. In 2018, on the territory of the Krylovsky forestry, a forest pathological survey of pine stands was carried out. When re-examining in 2019, the dynamics of the state of pine plantations was investigated depending on the impact on the tree stand of the trunk pest - Ips acuminatus Eichh. The loss of trees on a large scale was pathological.
Keywords: pine plantations, forest pathological examination, Ips acuminatus.
Vishnevskaya N. I., Vodolazhsky A. N., Serikov M.T. RADIAL GROWTH OF PETIOLATE OAK IN THE CONDITIONS OF MOTOR TRANSPORT AIR POLLUTION ON THE TERRITORY OF UOL VGLTA
Abstract: The article reflects the results of a study conducted in the stands of petiolate oak on the territory of the right-Bank forest area OF the UOL VGLTU, which established the reliability of the impact of motor transport air pollution in the roadside lane of the Voronezh-Moscow highway on the radial growth of oak. In the course of field work, an eye-measuring taxation of the studied and control plantings was carried out according to the generally accepted method. Model trees were selected for taking wood cores. The selected cores were dated. These samples were used to determine the average annual growth over the past 20 years. Taxation indicators of plantings in the studied forest areas (in the roadside lane) and in the control areas are given. The results of measurements of annual radial increments on cores of model oak trees in the conditions of motor transport impact and control are presented. Statistical indicators of the average values of the annual radial growth of oak in the compared stands were determined, and the reliability of their differences was established. Based on the obtained research data, graphs of radial growth of petiolate oak are plotted, and conclusions are drawn based on the results.
Keywords: petiolate oak (Latin: Quércus róbur), radial growth, taxation characteristics, road transport air pollution, technogenic impact.
Vyshlov S.V., Avdeeva I.A. DIRECTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE REGULATORY DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM OF EXECUTIVE AUTHORITIES OF CONSTITUENT ENTITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Abstract: The article notes the existence of a number of unresolved topical issues in the theory and practice of regulating the activities of executive authorities. The analysis of the system of regulatory documentation of a specific executive authority of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation in the field of forest relations — forestry department of the Voronezh region. The subject of the analysis was: consistency and completeness of the set of regulatory documentation; bodies that developed and approved the regulations. It was revealed that functional documents regulate the provision of public services and the implementation of public functions, numbering 17 units. The structure of the set of functional regulations by the type of the approving authority is shown. It was noted that at the moment there is no approved regulation for the implementation of state fire supervision in forests. It was revealed that the official regulations of state civil servants of the forestry department are determined by the law of the Voronezh region, however, at the level of the considered subject of the Russian Federation there is no special document that sets a model for drawing up official regulations. It is shown that the regulations are entirely dependent on changes made to normative acts, which leads to a natural time gap between the moments of changes to normative acts and regulations. In practice, this may result in a poor-quality provision of a public service (implementation of a public function) and a decrease in the effectiveness of a normative act or, at least, the appearance of a significant time lag before the results of changes made to a normative act appear. It is proposed to minimize the negative consequences of this problem by formulating a section in the RF Government Decree of May 16, 2011 No. 373, which would provide for both a simplified and abbreviated procedure for introducing and adopting amendments to administrative regulations following amendments to normative acts, as well as rationing and introducing careful control of the timing development and approval of administrative regulations.
Keywords: executive authority of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, sphere of forest relations, system of regulatory documentation, directions for improvement, administrative regulations.
Katsabov A. A., Milenin A.I. THE GROWTH AND THE PHENOLOGICAL STATE OF THE SPECIES OF OAK IN DRY OAK FOREST AREA OF KRASNOGVARDEYSKIY, BELGOROD REGION
Abstract: The results of studying the growth of stands of early-blooming and late-blooming oak of artificial petiolate origin in a dry oak forest at the age of 49 years are presented. To study the growth and condition of petiolate oak in the Krasnogvardeysky forestry of the Belgorod region, two test areas were laid in the type of forest growing conditions dry oak grove, TLU-D1 . On each test area, a continuous list of trees was made, and diameters and heights were measured. Based on the data of a solid list, the taxational characteristics of stands were determined: stock, composition, completeness, sum of cross-section areas, average height and average diameter. For all oak trees, the category of condition was determined in accordance with the rules of sanitary safety in the forests of the Russian Federation. Differences between cultures were established by methods of mathematical statistics. In the conditions of D1, the best indicators are characterized by stands of petiolate oak of the early-spreading variety.they have a better sanitary condition, a larger stock, completeness, yield of business wood and a higher cost of wood. The best indicators are characterized by stands of early oak. The stock of early oak is 16 m cubic meters / ha(16%), the trunk height is 1.43 m ( 10 %) and the diameter is 1 cm (6 %).
Recommendations are given for growing the early-spreading variety of petiolate oak under these conditions.
Keywords: phenology, variety, stock, condition category.
Kirik A.I., Parakchnevich Т.М., Kondratieva А.К. PECULIARITIES OF POSTPYROGENIC REFORESTATION OF THE DOMINANTS OF THE WOODY STORY OF OAK IN THE CENTRAL RUSSIAN FOREST STEPPE
Abstract: The article discusses the results of studies the post-pyrogenic succession on the territory of the "Galichya Gora" natural reserve. It was found that the restoration of the dominants of the arboreal layer of the upland oak forest in the next 10-20 years will follow the path of the formation of a coppice oak forest. During this period, small-leaved linden and birch will appear in the windows of renewal, the proportion of nemoral species in the herbaceous and shrub layers will increase, and light-living species will drop out of the oak forest. Seed regeneration of oak is possible in medium and large windows, as well as along the edge. The transition to a long-existing oak forest with a predominance of individuals of seed origin is practically impossible.
Keywords: oak grove, coppice oak grove, postpyrogenic succession, restoration of the canopy layer.
Klevtsova V.V., Sivolapov V.A., Kharchenko N.N. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF EXOGENOUS WEAKEN FACTORS ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS OF THE VORONEZH REGION
Abstract: Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the impact of various negative impact factors on the sanitary state of forest ecosystems in the Voronezh region showed that as of the end of 2019, the area of stands with disturbed and lost stability in the forests of the region was 59.5 thnd ha, or 15% of the land area occupied by forest stands. Compared to 2018, the specified area decreased by 2.4 thnd ha. Among the main exogenous factors of forest weakening in the region are: forest diseases – 42 thnd ha; forest fires-1.5 thnd ha; damage by phytophagous insects – 7.2 thnd ha; non-pathogenic factors – 1.9 thnd ha; anthropogenic factors – 0.8 thnd ha; damage by wild animals-0.02 thnd ha. Forest diseases are the most significant factor in the loss of plantings in 2019 in the Voronezh region. The specific death rate from them is 0.86. The second highest rate of specific death is for stands covered by forest fires - 0.47. The loss of stands due to anthropogenic factors in 2019 was established in the Voronezh forestry, the specific loss was 0.002 over the entire area of land occupied by forest stands. Other factors of influence, such as damage by wild animals and insects, did not cause the death of stands.
Keywords: forest ecosystems, sanitary condition, weaken factors.
Komarova O.V., Tsaralunga V.V., Tsaralunga A.V. THE USE OF INSTRUMENTAL METHODS FOR THE RAPID DIAGNOSIS OF TREE VIABILITY
Abstract: We have tested a number of methods for diagnosis of viability of several tree species using a standard multitester UP71C with different contact probes and different measurement points. We attempted to identify regularities between bioelectric parameters (potential difference, galvanic currents and total impedance) tree species, its diameter, category of health state, and different pathological signs. No reliable patterns were discovered. It turned out that the data collected were substantially dependent not only on the tree viability and its physiological state but also on the depth of measurement, the closeness of fit of the contact probes to the wood tissues, the mutual alignment and the size of the contact probes, the uniformity of wood in the measurement point (whether the probes contact with natural wood defects, places of cracks, swellings or resin pockets, etc.) All these factors can crucially affect the accuracy of measurements and impact the objective assessment of the physiological state of the tree. We therefore conclude that the imperfections of the used methods for measuring bioelectric parameters of a tree critically affect the accuracy of the data obtained, and, at the moment, we are not able to recommend these methods for rapid diagnosis of tree viability.
Keywords: Tree viability, category of tree health state, pathological signs, diagnosis of tree health state, bioelectric parameters of a tree.
Koshelev A.Yu., Blagodarova T.A., Sivolapov A.I. SEED SIMILARITY, GROWTH AND CONDITION OF SEEDLINGS OAK SCRATCHED UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF A GAS DECOMPRESSION
Abstract: Gas decompression with oxygen was used as a method of sterilization and inactivation during the treatment of English oak seeds to study the effect of gas decompression on germination, growth and condition of seedlings. Experiments with the pedunculate oak showed that as a result of the treatment of acorns with oxygen under pressure, no changes in external signs were found in the seedlings. Standard seedlings obtained.
Keywords: gas decompression, acorns, pedunculate oak, germination, growth.
Malysheva V.I., Chernyshov M.P. THE GROWING OF BARE-ROOT SCOTS PINE SEEDLINGS IN VORONEZH REGION
Abstract: Within the framework of the federal project "Conservation of Forests" of the national project "Ecology", the Government of the Russian Federation sets the task of increasing the ratio of the area of reforestation and afforestation to the area of cut and dead forest stands to 100% by 2024.
According to the current Reforestation Rules, in the period from 01.01.2022 to 01.01.2025 at least 20% of the area of artificial and combined reforestation will be carried out using planting material with a closed root system. It is also planned to further increase the share of planting material with a closed root system, namely: until 2030 - 30% and after 2030 - 45%.
Planting material with a closed root system is a high-tech and modern type of planting material with its own advantages: low seed consumption during spot seeding; shortened terms for reaching standard sizes in greenhouse conditions; an increase in the period of planting forest crops, etc. In addition to the high cost of planting material with a closed root system, the most important and indispensable condition for creating sustainable forest crops is the need to plant seedlings only in fresh and wet types of forest growing conditions.
In a scientific article, based on the research of the authors, data from studies of Scots pine seedlings with a closed root system, grown in 2020, are presented.
Keywords: Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), standard planting material, containerized root system.
Mironenko A.V., Davydov A.A., Davranov I. N. ANALYSIS OF THE ESTIMATED CUTTING AREA OF PRIGORODNOE FORESTRY VORONEZH REGION
Abstract: the optimal annual volume of wood withdrawal during selective felling of Mature and over-Mature oak stands in the Prigorodnoe forest area of the Voronezh region has been established, which will ensure continuous forest use and even distribution of stands by age groups for 100 years. The forecast of distribution of plantings by age groups is received.
Keywords: Forest Fund, estimated cutting area, simulation model, forecast.
Podpirigora I.A., Tuvishkina M.A., Revin A.I. GROWTH PROGRESS AND COMMODITY STRUCTURE OF ASPEN PLANTATIONS OF OSTROGOZHSK FORESTRY IN VORONEZH REGION
Abstract: Research has been carried out on aspen plantations of the I quality class in the Ostrogozhsk forestry of the Voronezh region on 8 test plots. The dependences of the main taxation indicators on the age of the stands were determined, and the commodity structure of forest stands was obtained. As a result of the work done, tables of the course of growth were constructed for aspen plantations of the I quality class.
Keywords: plantation, trial plot, taxation indicators, growth progress, commodity structure.
Pokoeva M.V. MODELING OF FOREST FIRE DEVELOPMENT USE REMORE SENSING DATA
Abstract: Digitization and decoding of forest fires on the territory of the Republic of Buryatia and the TRANS– Baikal territory was carried out using medium– resolution satellite images. The object of research is a wooded area covered by fire during the spring period of forest fires, located on the territory of the Yeravninsky district of the Republic of Buryatia and the Tungokochensky district of the TRANS– Baikal territory. A dynamic model of forest fire development is obtained, this area and growth are determined. A mathematical analysis of the spread of fire over large areas was carried out, taking into account the daily weather information for the object for each day of the fire (wind direction and speed, average daily air temperature, KPO, precipitation, humidity). A correlation was found (R=0.42) between the area covered by fire and the average daily air temperature.
Keywords: photogrammetry, decryption of satellite images, forest fire, remote sensing, fire simulation.
Popikov P.I., Konyukhov A.V. ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH ON DYNAMIC LOADING AND RELIABILITY OF METAL STRUCTURES OF FORESTRY MANIPULATORS
Abstract: The article presents materials on the analysis of studies of the dynamic loading and reliability of metal structures of forest manipulators. It has been established that, as a result of fundamental studies of the dynamics of the processes of operation of logging equipment of the manipulator type, such scientists as Aleksandrov V.A., Andreev V.N., Zhukov A.V., Gerasimov Yu.Yu., Emtyl Z.K., Tatarenko A .P. etc.,. mathematical models of interaction of manipulators with trees have been developed, problems of designing hydraulic manipulators have been solved taking into account the stressed state of the metal structure, as well as dynamic loading during operation in various conditions. In the work of A.A. Sidorov the processes of operation of the mechanism for lifting the boom of a manipulator using the connection of an additional damper to the hydraulic system of an auto-log truck are studied. A decrease in the maximum pressure overshoots in the piston cavity of the hydraulic cylinder by 47%, and in the rod cavity - by approximately 25% was registered, with the optimal value of the throttling channel diameter 3.5–4.5 mm. In the work of Sagdeev K.B. mathematical models of the loading of the crane-manipulator installation have been developed taking into account the influence of the elastic deformation of the boom and the flexibility of the elastic elements of the hydraulic drive. The proposed calculation method for determining the dynamic loading of the manipulator was investigated when testing a full-scale sample "Sinegorets-75". In the course of these tests, the difference between the maximum values of the values of the dynamic forces on the booms (calculated and experimental) was revealed, which is less than 5%. In the work of Kostyukevich V.M. a method for calculating the reliability indicators of metal structures of manipulators of logging machines, taking into account fatigue cracks due to technological discontinuities of metal structures, has been developed. The purpose of our research is to increase the reliability indicators of the boom metal structure at the design stage by reducing the dynamic loading with the optimal parameters of the damping devices of the hydraulic drive.
Keywords: hydraulic manipulator, boom, metal structure, reliability, hydraulic drive, damping devices.
Popikov P.I., Malyukov S.V., Pozdnyakov A.K. ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH OF WORKING PROCESSES OF AUGER WORKING BODIES OF TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINES
Abstract: At modern manufacturing enterprises of the construction industry, mechanical engineering, food, agricultural, forestry and other industries, the transportation of dusty, fire hazardous and small-sized materials is carried out mainly by screw conveyors (augers). In addition to screw conveyors, feeders with an active working body of the screw type, used in active units of technological units, as well as in the form of separate machines, have gained widespread use. The main purpose of feeders at manufacturing enterprises is the uninterrupted and uniform supply of materials to crushing, grinding, molding and other technological machines or to transport devices. Combine harvesters use universal auger cutting devices. In forestry, soil-cultivating auger cutters, auger de-wingers of forest seeds, additional auger working bodies of forest fire ground guns are used to remove soil cover and combustible materials. An analysis of patent materials on the creation of structures for forest fire ground-throwing machines with auger working bodies shows that they do not provide for safety devices to reduce the dynamic loads on the working bodies of the augers of forest fire ground-throwing machines and protect them from breakage when hitting stumps and large roots. Therefore, the aim of the authors' research is to increase the efficiency of preventing and extinguishing forest fires by substantiating the design and technological scheme of the ground-throwing machine and rational parameters of the hydraulically driven screw, which ensures the removal of the ground cover with combustible materials and reducing the dynamic loads of the working process.
Keywords: forest fire extinguishing, auger, energy intensity, mechanical engineering.
Chernyshov M.P., Yurova A.S. CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF CONIFEROUS AND DECIDUOUS TREES IN FOREST STANDS
Abstract: The multidimensional concept of "vital state of trees" in its content is an integral evaluation category that reflects at a certain point in time (the date of the survey) the established ratio of several indicators of growth and development of the tree, namely: crown tracery, color of needles (foliage), defoliation, the amount of growth of shoots of the current year, the presence of damage, diseases, dry branches, etc. Assessment of the state of trees during forest pathology, forest taxation and environmental surveys in forest stands, which entails certain economic measures (selective or continuous sanitary logging), often causes disputes both among forest pathologists with relevant knowledge and experience, and among those who control the results of these surveys.
The work is devoted to improving the criteria and standards for assessing the condition of trees and stands of coniferous deciduous species included in the current "rules of sanitary safety in forests".
In the course of studying the state of oak and pine forests in the Central Chernozem region, it was found that the applied criteria and assessment standards are differentiated for coniferous and deciduous species and by categories of tree condition. However, they are established on the basis of visual inspection of their trunks and crowns, the color of needles and leaves, the growth of shoots of the current year, the presence of damage, rot and fruit bodies of fungi with a significant degree of subjectivity. Based on the totality of the performed assessments of these elements of each tree (or their group, stand), their overall assessment is formed
Keywords: Central Black Earth Region, oak forests, pine forests, trees and stands, evaluation criteria, status categories, growth, water shoots.
CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY IN FOREST AND NON-FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
Antyukhin A.R., Ryndin V.E. ORIENTATION OF HONEYBEE IN CONDITIONS OF HIGH-FREQUENCY POLLUTION OF THE AREA
Abstract: The rapid development of wireless communication in the last 20-30 years leads to the saturation of the surface layers of the atmosphere with electromagnetic radiations of various frequency and powerful characteristics. In addition to satellite communications and service radio stations, individual receivers or "cell" phones were the most widely distributed. Now they have become miniature, have many options, in particular the ability to connect to the global network and have price availability. As a result, the vast majority of Russian citizens possess this equipment. Huge amounts of information transmitted by cellular operators lead to the need to use frequency signal modulation and an increase in the frequency of the electromagnetic signal. These ultra-high frequencies are artificially created and atypical for the flora and fauna of the planet and are capable of harming living objects. Bee honey Apis mellifera is a typical example of the negative effects of ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic and ...
Keywords: ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation of the cellular range, the collapse of the bee family, the style, the denature, the flying bees, the hive bees.
Barkhudaryan D.A., Tichonova E.N. ANTHROPOGENIC TRANSFORMATION OF PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE CENTRAL FOREST STEPPE
Abstract: The influence of the anthropogenic factor on the natural environment changes the nature of the vegetation cover, which in turn leads to the appearance of synanthropic types of communities. In many synecological studies, the problem of vegetation cover, which in turn is the frame of terrestrial ecosystems, occupies the main place. The large-scale nature of anthropogenesis led to the fact that the forest-steppe natural zone turned out to be more susceptible to anthropogenic influence, therefore, today, for the subsequent conservation of biological diversity and the stable performance of functions by forest-steppe ecosystems, it is necessary to maintain self-regulation processes at the proper level.
This article examines the scale of the impact of the anthropogenic factor on plant communities within the same natural zone when comparing the dump of Berezovy Log, Kursk magnetic anomaly, and the Central Chernozem State Natural Biosphere Reserve named after Professor V.V. Alekhin.
Understanding these processes will make it possible to create forest plantations with the necessary ecological potential, while subjecting them to minimal maintenance. As a result of these phenomena, the study of the perception of forest-steppe plant communities, on the conditions of their habitation, is an urgent problem in ecology. A method of reforestation with minimal disturbance to the forest environment is necessary in the practical application of forestry.
Keywords: forest-steppe, self-regulation, reforestation, succession, plant communities, anthropogenic factor, ecology, central forest-steppe.
Zamiusskaya E.V., Vasilyeva N.V., Koza V.A., Chekmeneva Yu.V. PECULIARITIES OF THE PHENOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INTRODUCTS IN THE ARBORETUM OF VSUFT OF VORONEZH IN THE CONDITIONS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE
Abstract: The phenological development, seasonal growth and variability of the traits of coniferous and deciduous introduced species in the arboretum of the VGFTU were studied. Traits characterizing growth and development are indicators of the adaptation of woody plants to new conditions. The criterion for assessing plant resistance is the coefficient of variation. It is noted that deciduous and coniferous introduced species go through all phenological phases in the seasonal development of the vegetative sphere. Differences in the timing of the onset and phenophases are associated with the biological characteristics of the species and the weather conditions of the growing season in 2019. The features in the seasonal development of the generative sphere in deciduous species have been revealed. The variability of traits corresponds to the general pattern of endogenous variability: the parameters of leaves and needles vary at a low - medium level, the growth of shoots in length also changes at a low - medium level; variability in the growth of shoots in diameter increases from low to high and high levels. Resistant individuals were identified, and recommendations for use in urban landscaping were given.
Keywords: phenological development, seasonal growth, introduced species, phenotypic variability, arboretum, Voronezh.
Kopaev M.V., larionov V.G., Bezrukova T.L. WARMING OF CLIMATE OF THE PLANET AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE ANIMAL’S AND FLORA’S OF FORESTS
Abstract: Article opens problems of warming of climate of the planet and transformation of an animal and flora of the woods in connection with change of the volatile organic compounds (VOC) which have such name in connection with their gas state. Volatile organic compounds define aromas and important smells thanks to which animals, birds and other organisms survive. The chemical bond which is established between individuals on the basis of sense of smell is defined that promotes to form relationship, to frighten off enemies, to hunt for production, to feel danger, to find the partner for reproduction, plants can carry out cellular protection, escaping from wreckers. Changes of amount of volatile organic compounds in air influence the nature therefore demand constant observation, studying and the analysis. This problem, at first sight, can seem to the person insignificant as he practically does not catch change in habitual smells. Very few people connect it with changes in climate, however this problem becomes more and more serious. Authors pointed actions for mitigation of climate change to future condition of an animal and flora and forestry. By scientists it is proved that changes of quantity of LOS in air influence the nature, violation of balance can cause any changes of an animal or flora. This problem does not seem for many important very few people connect it with changes in climate therefore this problem becomes very serious.
Keywords: climate, volatile organic compounds, flora, fauna, forestry, woods.
Kornev I.I., Aksenenko E.V., Kondratyeva A.M. ALIEN AND INVASIVE INSECT SPECIES IN THE FAUNA OF THE VORONEZH REGION
Abstract: Information on alien and invasive insect species identified for the fauna of the Voronezh Region is provided. 10 species of insect invaders from 5 orders are indicated: Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say, 1824)), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, 1773, Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (Coleoptera); Acrocercops brongniardella (Fabricius, 1798), Hyphantria cunea Drury, 1773, Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic, 1986 (Lepidoptera); Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hymenoptera); Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910), Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius,1803) (Heteroptera).
Keywords: alien species, invaders, invasive species, biological invasions, Voronezh Region, Voronezh.
Likhachev D.V., Bogdanov S.A. FORMATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC-METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO CHOOSING THE SPECIALIZATION OF THE LEFT ROTARY LINE IN THE ZONE OF THE ADJUSTABLE CROSSROADS
Abstract: The article is devoted to the ways of organizing left-turn traffic in the area of controlled intersections. As a result of the study of the world experience in arranging left-turn traffic at regulated intersections, the authors found that today there is no reasonable approach to the specialization of the strip, based on the study of the main characteristics of the traffic flow. The authors have developed an algorithm based on previously unused characteristics, which allows, depending on the ratio of the intensity of the conflict "direct conflict and left-turn flow" to determine the necessary way of organizing the movement. As a result of approbation of the developed algorithm, the effectiveness of using the developed algorithm for choosing the specialization of the left turn lane in the area of a controlled intersection was determined.
Keywords: adjustable intersection, traffic light cycle, transport delay, regulation parameters.
Mikhina V.V., Kharchenko N.N. FORMATION OF ECOLOGIA PROTEKTIVE PLANTATIONS IN CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL FOREST-STEPPE ZONE
Abstract: In the conditions of the central forest-steppe, the stands fulfill the ecological and reclamation role. This is especially important before the start of the growing season and during the warm season of the year. In winter, in forest-agrarian landscapes, they contribute to the redistribution of snow cover by accumulation parameters and moisture reserves. The effective work of such plantations is determined by the structure of the transverse profile, which is formed depending on the forestry, agrotechnical methods of creation. Dense in design artificial plantations collect snow inside themselves, where their range extends to 10H heights. More uniform snow distribution is noted in the system of protective plantings of openwork and blown structure (range up to 16-22Н). The smallest reserves of snow water are formed among stands of dense structure (439-535 m3/ ha). Land reclamation objects of openwork and blown structure form snow water reserves in the streak zones with a volume of 477-634 m3/ ha. Differences in the plume and inter-plume zones for snow accumulation are 22.8-34.4 %. For the formation of optimized forest reclamation complexes of field-preservation purposes, taking into account the winter reclamation impact, they should be created with a blown and openwork structure. Dense stands to form in anti-erosion categories.
Keywords: ecological role, reclamation influence, protective plantings.
Molchanov V.V., Popova A.A. VARIATIONS OF ACORN MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE VORONEZH REGION
Abstract: The acorn morphometric analysis was carried out. Acorns of Quercus robur collected in populations of the Shilovo, Krasnolesnyy, BSSC «Maklok», Shipov forest. The indicators of acorn were weight, in g., acorn length and width, in cm. The widest limits of variation in weight, length, and diameter are observed in acorns from the experimental territory «Shipov forest»: from 0.55 to 10.43 g, from 1.52 to 4.7 cm, and from 0.86 to 2.31 cm, respectively. The smallest differences between the maximum and minimum weight (from 1.53 to 5.48 g) and the diameter (from 1.1 to 1.69 cm) are observed in the experimental territory «Krasnolesny», and the minimum variation in length was observed in acorns from the experimental territory of «Shilovo» from 2.29 to 3.36 cm.
Ключевые слова: полиморфизм, дуб черешчатый (Quercus robur L.), морфометрические параметры желудей, изменчивость.
Keywords: polymorphism, petiolate oak (Quercus robur L.), morphometric parameters of acorns, variability.
Radkova E.A., Popova A.A. VARIETY OF CYNIPOIDEA IN THE OAK FORESTS, VORONEZH REGION
Abstract: The material for this article is forest insects that live in the oak forests of Voronezh and the Voronezh region. They belong to the order Hymenoptera, the suborder Apocrita, and the subfamily Cynipoidae. The analysis of the presence of various types of Cynipoidae in oak stands located directly in the city of Voronezh on Timiryazev and Moskovsky Prospekt streets, as well as in the nursery of Semiluki and the Shipov forest was carried out. Each type of Cynipoidae causes the formation of only its characteristic galls. Thanks to this, we were able to determine the presence of such types of Cynipoidae: Neuroterus numismalis, Cynips quercusfolii, Andricus inflator, Neuroterus quercusbaccarum. We have identified that the presence of these types of Cynipoidae differ in different oak stands of Voronezh region.
Ключевые слова: галлы орехотворок, дубравы, биоразнообразие.
Ryadnova T.S., Slavskiy V.A. BREEDING OF WALNUTS IN THE BELGOROD REGION
Abstract: Excretion and selection of plants with specified parameters is a priority in breeding. In the Belgorod region, much attention is paid to the development of horticulture and fruit growing, where among other cultivated crops there are nut crops, including walnuts. Identification of new promising varieties from a set of forms for the creation of walnut plantations will enrich the local assortment of fruit crops and preserve the existing gene pool. The objects of study were landscape groups, plantations and separately growing walnut trees growing on the territory of the Belgorod region, of which 4 forms with the best condition and adaptive potential were identified. Selected form 2 of walnuts, which is distinguished by high quality of fruits, taste and kernel yield. This allows us to recommend form 2 walnuts for State variety testing for subsequent zoning and breeding in the Belgorod region.
Keywords: selection, walnut, kernels, kernel output, phenological characteristics, morphological features.
Spidchenko V.V., Mikhina E.A., Mikhin V.I. FORMATION OF PROTECTIVE PLANTS INCONDITIONS OF BELGOROD OBLAST
Abstract: Protective plantations in Belgorod Oblast are represented by long-lived and fast-growing tree species. The cultivation of silver birch and european oak at age of 28 years with placement of 2.5 × 1.0 m shows that birch oppresses oak and exceeds it in growth in terms of biometric indicators by 1.95-7.91 times. Silvicultural and reclamation assessment of protective plantations is 4b. These plantings have a wind-blow structure. The growth of silver birch, balsam poplar and green ash shows that by the age of 28 years, birch exceeds ash in growth of diameter and height by 1.43-1.52 times. In addition, birch lags behind in growth in diameter and height from poplar, respectively, by 1.17-1.24 times when placing seats 2.5 × 0.8 m. At the same time, in the forest belts, an openwork-blown structure is formed. In plantations with participation of false acacia, green ash and norway maple, the white acacia has the greatest preservation and biometric growth indicators, at the age of 14. In forest belts, consisting of silver birch and ash-leaved maple, a dense structure of plantations is formed, at the age of 23. Green ash at the age of 22 years with the participation of siberian peashrub reaches a windproof height of 11.5 m. In the poplar-ash forest belts, the survival rate is 71.9 - 80.2% at the age of 12 years. In mixed plantations of silver birch, false acacia, and norway maple, the lowest growth and survival rates were found in maple.
Keywords: protective plantings, tree species, formation.
Tolbina I. A., Тrеshcevskaya E. I. THE CURRENT STATE OF PINE PLANTS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS
Abstract: The current state of pine plantations in the roadside forest belt depends not only on the ecological, phenological and individual characteristics of pine plantations, but also on anthropogenic factors, which mainly change the composition of the properties of soil, air and water, and also directly harm crops that grow on that or another area. The article presents data on the current state of pine plantations growing in the roadside forest belt in the Bobrovsky district of the Voronezh region. In Bobrovskoe forestry on gray forest soils, in roadside forest belts created from pure pine plantations, test plots were laid. A forestry and reclamation assessment of the current state of the roadside forest belt from Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) crops in the Bobrovsky district is given. The average age of pine plantations in the forestry is 70-75 years. Scots pine on the trial plot grows according to quality class III. The stock is 220 m3 per hectare. The safety of the strip is currently 60%.
Keywords: Pinus Silvestris, current state, anthropogenic impact.
Fateeva V.A., Popova V.T. ANALYSIS OF WATER RETENTION CAPACITY OF SPECIES OF THE GENUS JUGLUNS
Abstract: The water-holding capacity of different species of walnut growing in the arboretum UGLTU was conducted. The possibility of introducing different types of nuts to the Central black earth region, in particular the Voronezh region, was evaluated due to the observed trend of climate warming and basis of the obtained data, as well as the analyzed literature sources. Juglans relationship to various climatic factors and their water-holding capacity shown, that this plants can be used as a greener and valuable nut fruit.
Keywords: water-holding capacity, species of the genus Juglans.
Kharchenko N.N., Mikhina V.V. GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF SILVER BIRCH AMONG PROTEKTIVE LINEAR FOREST PLANTATIONS IN CONDITIONS OF FOREST-STEPPE ZONE
Abstract: Linear protective plants form the ecological frame of landscapes. Taking into account natural and climatic conditions, tree species are selected. Silver birch occupies 15.8% of the share in the forest-steppe conditions of Central Black Earth Region. Tree species were created at different times with different creation techniques and mixing schemes. In narrow plantings, the highest biometric indicators of growth, preservation and condition are noted with equivalent placement of trees and the initial planting density. In middle-aged birch plantations, the largest diameter, height and their increments were found when placing seats 3.0 x 1.0 m and planting density 3333 pcs / ha. When mixed with silver birch with norway maple, mutual influence appears. In the middle-aged period, safety of trees and average height is higher by 4.0 - 7.3% in such plantings. At the age of 20 - 37 years, a convex transverse profile of stands is formed in artificial linear plantings.This is predetermined by the physiological characteristics of tree types in these plantations. Diameter of the outer rows of plantations exceeds the average rows by 5.4 -17.6%.The height of the central rows of plantations is 9.2 - 12.8% higher than the outer rows. It is necessary to take into account the found patterns during the cultivation of protective plantations. This will make it possible to have highly productive biocenoses.
Keywords: artificial protective linear plantings, growth, preservation, biometric indicators.
INNOVATIONS IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN AND URBAN GREENING
Abramova L.P., Nizhegorodova D.D. CHARACTERISTIC OF SOIL COVER "PARK NAMED AFTER THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF KOMSOMOL", YEKATERINBURG
Abstract: Knowledge about the soil is widely used in the practice of landscape design workers and other professions. The article describes the soil sections that were made during the summer training practice on the territory of the "Park named after the 50th anniversary of the Komsomol" in the city of Yekaterinburg. In total, 20 PP and 5 prikopok were laid, the share of each type of soil is shown. The type,subtype, genus, type and variety of soil is determined, and a detailed description of each horizon is given. Also, this article examines the vegetation of the site, provides examples of woody plants and reveals the relationship of soil types with it. Special attention is paid to the "urbik" horizon, as it is part of the urbanized soils that are present in the Park. Natural soils are compared with urban soils. After studying the soil sections, vegetation and terrain, conclusions are given: on the territory of the Park "Park named after the 50th anniversary of the Komsomol", sod soils with the subtype: gley-sod, genus: carbonless, type: powerful and variety: easily loamy predominate. Usually, the formation of such soils occurs under grassy vegetation, which is rich in mineral elements. The "urban" layer, which is typical for urban soils, is common in anthropogenic modified soils. Urbic has a high density, while natural horizons are looser. The structure of urban soils is often lumpy, while natural soils are lumpy. Urbik contains about 5% or more of construction and household waste, natural soil - many times less.
Keywords: soil, urbanized horizon, urban soils, natural soils, soil sections.
Arnaut Yu.I., Сhekmeneva Yu.V. THE USE OF BIOTECHNOLOGIES AS METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL FOR LANDSCAPING IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
Abstract: The article is devoted to such a problem as the lack of local planting material, which can be solved by using clonal micropropagation methods in vitro. This method is best suited for the production of planting material on an industrial scale. The paper presents the results of the development of methods for rapid multiplication of plants on the example of the viburnum bladder "Diabolo". As a result of the research, methods of sterilization of explants for their introduction into culture in vitro, proliferation and rhizogenesis of sterile plants Physocarpus opulifolius "Diabolo" in vitro have been developed and proposed, optimal conditions for the transfer of microclones to non-sterile conditions have been identified. Which will ensure the mass production of planting material Physocarpus opulifolius (L). Maxim «Diabolo» for creating highly efficient plantings in an urban environment.
Ключевые слова: озеленение, экологизация, городская среда, клональное микроразмножение, пузыреплодник калинолистный, древесные и кустарниковые породы, введение в культуру in vitro, пролиферация, ризогенез, адаптация
Keywords: landscaping, greening, urban environment, clonal micropropagation, Physocarpus opulifolius, tree and bush crops, introduction of plant material into aseptic culture, proliferation, rhizogenes, adaptation
Kartashova N. P., Kulakova E.N. LANDSCAPING AND IMPROVEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL TERRITORIES
Abstract: The article presents a pre-project analysis of the territory of the «Voronezhsintezkauchuk» plant located in the left-bank district of the city of Voronezh. The object of research is considered both intra-city from the point of view of the territory, and limited from the point of view of functionality. Landscape and environmental assessment were carried out by full - scale survey (analysis of the structure and condition of plantings, survey of the site for geological structure) with a mark on the plan of planning elements of the territory. As a result of a field survey, the type of spatial structure and the condition of plantings growing on the territory of the plant were determined. Aesthetic and sanitary-hygienic assessment of the object's territory was performed. The range of plants is selected taking into account their stability in these conditions. Recommended types of garden and Park plantings-tapeworms, row plantings, landscape groups, hedges.
Keywords: landscaping, improvement, production area, landscape and environmental expertise, aesthetic assessment, sanitary and hygienic assessment, ecological state, assortment of plants.
Lukina I.K., Bakumenko A.O. ON THE ISSUE OF CONTAINER GARDENING
Abstract: The current state of urban social facilities is very poor. Poor funding, accumulated economic problems over the years, and the unresolved nature of many social problems against the background of the General unfavorable environmental and landscape situation-all this makes the managers of social facilities save on everything, including landscaping and flower design of the territory.
This paper analyzes the modern container design of the city of Voronezh on the example of the campus of the Voronezh state forestry University named after G. F. Morozov and searches for the current range of perennials for container compositions.
Special attention is paid to stationary vases oriented to the West located in an open Sunny place under the scorching rays of the sun.
It was decided to use perennial flowers and cereals for containers. Their decorative properties and flowering time are significantly lower, but they are much more resistant to adverse environmental conditions.
High decorativeness combined with technological efficiency, low traffic, anti – vandalism- these are the features that unite all the plants selected for the flowerpots located near the main building of the University and separating the pedestrian space from the roadway.
The past season has confirmed our assumptions: this range of plants is relevant and it is possible to extend this experience to other social facilities in the city.
Keywords: landscape architecture, urban environment, floral design, container gardening, assortment of plants.
Tatarintseva A.Y., Kochergina M.V. ASSORTMENT AND CONDITION OF TREE SEEDLINGS GARDEN CENTER "DENDROTHERMAL" (VORONEZH)
Abstract: The work is devoted to the problems of interaction between landscape designers and producers of planting material. Seedlings with a closed root system are of the greatest interest for landscaping objects. Such plants can be transplanted almost at any time of the year, are not subject to stress and do not need long-term adaptation. They take root well and have a high survival rate. These circumstances make container planting material very popular. Today, a variety of seedlings with a closed root system is implemented in garden centers. The paper presents the results of studying the range and condition of deciduous woody plants of the garden center «Dendroferma» (Voronezh). The total number of plants in the garden center is 3,400. The range includes 460 species, varieties, and forms of plants. Deciduous trees are represented by 23 species from 11 families. At the same time, 6 species do not have decorative forms, the rest differ in decorative forms and varieties. Their continuous inventory showed that seven plant specimens (1.2% of the total number of seedlings examined) they need to be moved to the quarantine site due to damage to the trunk and broken branches. There were no signs of infectious diseases or damage to plants by pests. Regular monitoring of the state of planting material, preventive treatment and agrotechnical care ensure the health of plants and their presentation.
Keywords: landscape design, ornamental plants, garden center, adaptation and condition of plants, care, protective measures.
Khazova E.P., Efimova R.A. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CENTRAL PART OF THE PRESIDENTIAL PARK NURSULTAN, REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
Abstract: Half of the population of Nur-Sultan (Republic of Kazakhstan) lives in the Almaty district, which increases the need for a thorough approach to the improvement of this part of the city. The area is considered elite, quickly built up and becomes indicative for visitors to the city. One of the most important objects that can be called the "face" of the capital is the Presidential Park. Its vast territory allows you to use this object in many ways for the purpose of cultural pastime of the population. The main decoration of the Park is reservoirs, the watercourse of which is harmoniously connected with the Ishim river. On the territory of the Park there are impressive monuments and buildings of original architecture, which are exhibition objects. In addition, the Park has opportunities for physical education, as well as for quiet recreation, Hiking. As part of the Park reconstruction project, we offer to carry out various activities: replacement of the road and path network structure, reconstruction of plantings, creation of recreation areas for the population, installation of small architectural forms that will fit seamlessly into the style of this object. The original floral design of existing water bodies and lawn planting are proposed. When implementing project activities on the territory of the Park, the solution of aesthetic problems will be fulfilled, as well as the improvement of the ecological state of the surrounding natural environment.
Keywords: park area, reconstruction, redevelopment, landscaping, functional zoning of the territory, architectural and planning concept.
Yudina A.S., Tatarintseva A.Y., Kochergina M.V. ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL STATE OF ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS ON LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE OBJECTS VORONEZH CITIES
Abstract: The work is devoted to the problems of the state of ornamental shrubs in the landscape architecture of the city of Voronezh. Shrub species on landscaping objects perform ecological functions and play an important aesthetic role. Coniferous species throughout the year saturate the environment with phytoncides and negative ions that have a beneficial effect on the human body. The correct selection of deciduous shrub species and decorative forms ensures a continuous change of bright colors during the growing season. It is shown that the main types of diseases of the assimilation apparatus of ornamental shrubs in plantings of objects of landscape architecture of the city of Voronezh are powdery mildew, spots, rust, black, deformation, viroses, false powdery mildew; Shute, rust, and Browning of needles develop on conifers. Their damage to plants is moderately harmful and not very harmful. Shrubs are divided into 3 groups of resistance to infectious diseases. The most stable are Tunberg's barberry, crowned Chub, white turf, common Privet, dogwoods, blood-red svidina, spirea, scaly juniper "blue carpet", Western thuja ("Brabant"), scaly juniper, Cossack juniper ("Tamariscifolia"). In order to increase the biological stability of plantings and reduce the spread of pathogens in them, a set of protective measures is proposed, including quarantine, monitoring, agrotechnical and forestry methods, as well as chemical plant protection.
Keywords: landscape architecture, ornamental shrubs, plant conditions, diseases of leaves and needles, pathogens, protective measures.